**main scale**and the

**vernier scale**). Vernier scale calculation, particularly, is the contrasting thing when compared to reading those two types of caliper. Your eyes have to be careful when deciding which one the align cable is. This is the core thing when you read vernier caliper. It requires effective eyesight. If you fail to do that, your measurement will be incorrect. In many cases, you can see our tilt of recommended vernier calipers, a single vernier caliper normally provides inch and millimeter graduation. That means you can get two versions of readout whether in millimeter or inch. But, some products can besides come with either millimeter or inch graduation only. If you see on the market, the edge interpretation models provide a resolution down to 0.001″ or 1/128″ ( imperial unit ). On the other hand, the measured models provide a resolution down to 0.02 mm, 0.05 millimeter, or 0.1 millimeter ( metric unit ). The variation of these resolutions leads to different commencement systems. even further, among the lapp resolution, the graduation system can be unlike as well.

In this post, we will be discussing how to read vernier caliper that has those kinds of graduation systems. Whether it is in millimeter ( millimeter ) or column inch, we will be covering it here. Through this post, you ’ ll know the gradation variation systems that we mean. Before you go promote, you have to learn beginning what the general recipe is and how to read the zero error .

## The General Formula

basically, the hitchhike principle in reading vernier caliper is alike both for the inch and millimeter scale .

Final Result = Main Scale Reading + Vernier Scale Reading – Zero Error

The **main scale reading** is the sum of the vernier scale divisions that are completely passed by the vernier scale ’ second zero line. While the **vernier scale reading** is the amount of vernier scale divisions from 0 to the aligned cable. You could see the follow picture. The inaugural ( left ) yellowed line shows how many divisions passed by the vernier 0 check. In this case, it has passed 42 divisions. While the moment ( right ) yellowed cable shows the align lineage. therefore, the main scale reading depends on the vernier scale, while the vernier scale read depends on the align production line. What is the align line ? Whenever you slide the vernier scale, there must be two lines ( one from the chief scale and one from the vernier scale ) that completely shape a unite true line. The vernier scale functions to divide the smallest division of the main scale into a particular amount of divisions so that it generates the desire resolution. If the main scale has 40 divisions per column inch, it means each smallest division on the chief scale has a value of 0.025″ .

Smallest chief scale division ’ s measure = 1″ : 40 divisions = 0.025″

To generate a 0.001″ solution, the vernier scale has to provide 25 divisions. That ’ randomness because the smallest chief scale division divided by 25 is 0.001″ .

Smallest vernier scale division ’ s measure = 0.025″ : 25 divisions = 0.001″

far, the calculation of the main and vernier read takes zero erroneousness into report although in most cases, the zero erroneousness is “ 0 ” and you can avoid it .

## What is Zero Error?

prior to reading the vernier caliper, you need to check whether the zero error exists or not. If it appears, you have to figure it out when calculating/reading the final measurement. Keep measuring without taking the zero error into calculation, you are measuring in an wrong way. Zero error is the condition where the zero markings of both scales ( main scale and vernier scale ) don ’ thymine shape an align line. It happens when you close both the two jaws ( fixed and chattel chew ) by rights. There are 3 possibilities that may happen : no zero error, negative zero error, and positive zero error .

**Negative zero error**is when the vernier scale’s zero marking lies at the left side of the main scale’s zero markings.**Positive zero error**is when the vernier scale’s zero marking lies at the right side of the main scale’s zero marking.**No zero error**means it’s completely an aligned line.

If you find a misalignment ( either positive or damaging zero mistake ), you have to include it in the calculation of the concluding measurement .

## How to Read Vernier Caliper’s Zero Error

basically, to read the zero error is the same as to read the vernier caliper as common. It takes both the main and vernier scales to meter. however, it can be confusing when you are facing a damaging zero error. fortunately, by creating an fanciful extra scale like the surveil prototype, you can start putting the measurement in a fix convention. The **first step** that you have to do is to define the value of each smallest division for both the main and vernier scale scale. Decide whether the scale is imperial ( inches ) or system of measurement ( millimeter ). In this encase, the above scale is inches. By looking at the commencement, we know that the main scale has 20 divisions per edge and the vernier scale scale has 50 divisions. then, Main scale respect / division = 1 inch : 20 divisions = 0.05″/division Vernier scale value / part = 0.05″ : 50 divisions = 0.001″/division The **second step** is to count the main and the vernier scale, then add them wholly. Main scale = −1 × 0.05″/division = −0.05″ Vernier scale = 47 × 0.001″/division = 0.047″ negative zero error = −0.050″ + 0.047″ = −0.003″ actually, there is a unretentive direction of reading the zero error. But we merely want to make sure that you know this basic measurement before jumping into the shortcut method acting. The shorter way is by reading in reverse. If you find the vernier scale graduated from left to right. You can imagine that the increase ( 0 to 50 ) is graduated from proper to left. Just immediately measure zero error from the 0 markings of the vernier scale scale, and you will get the answer. But, this method acting works only when the zero error is less than the smallest independent scale class rate .

## How to Read Vernier Caliper in mm (Metric)

When it comes to metric unit vernier caliper, there are respective resolutions available : 0.02 millimeter, 0.05 millimeter, and 0.1 millimeter. Different resolution has different commencement exemplary. Soon, you will know the gradation models that we mean and how to read them. We name them as model 1 ( 0.02 mm resolution ), model 2 ( 0.05 resolving power ), and model 3 ( 0.1 mm solution ). Among these models, model 1 is the most use and easily found on the commercialize .

### 1. Reading Vernier Caliper Model 1 (0.02 mm Resolution)

This model has **10 divisions per cm on its main scale** and **50 divisions on its vernier scale**. Example of vernier caliper that comes with this commencement model is Mitutoyo 532-119 vernier caliper. See the comply image when this gradation mannequin shows no nothing error. therefore, the smallest reading on the independent scale :

1 curium : 10 divisions = 1 millimeter

And the smallest understand on the vernier scale :

1 millimeter : 50 divisions = 0.02 millimeter

**Reading Metric Vernier Caliper Model 1 Case 1 (With No Zero Error)**

Main scale = 10 × 1 millimeter = 10 millimeter Vernier scale = 3 × 0.02 millimeter = 0.06 millimeter Zero erroneousness = 0 millimeter final reading = 10 millimeter + 0.06 millimeter − 0 millimeter = 10.06 millimeter

**Reading Metric Vernier Caliper Model 1 Case 2 (With Negative Zero Error)**

Main scale = −1 × 1 millimeter = −1 millimeter Vernier Scale = 47 × 0.02 millimeter = 0.94 millimeter Zero error = −1 mm + 0.94 millimeter = −0.06 millimeter Main plate = 12 × 1 millimeter = 12 millimeter Vernier scale = 13 × 0.02 millimeter = 0.26 millimeter Zero error = −0.06 millimeter final examination read = 12 millimeter + 0.26 millimeter − ( −0.06 millimeter ) = 12.32 millimeter

**Reading Metric Vernier Caliper Model 1 Case 3 (With Positive Zero Error)**

Main scale = 0 × 1 millimeter = 0 millimeter Vernier scale = 3 × 0.02 millimeter = 0.06 Zero error = 0 millimeter + 0.06 millimeter = 0.06 millimeter Main scale = 18 × 1 millimeter = 18 millimeter Vernier scale = 37 × 0.02 millimeter = 0.74 millimeter Zero error = 0.06 millimeter final interpretation = 18 millimeter + 0.74 millimeter − 0.06 millimeter = 18.68 millimeter

**Reading Metric Vernier Caliper Model 1 Case 4 (With No Zero Error)**

Main scale = 18 × 1 millimeter = 18 millimeter Vernier scale = 45 × 0.02 millimeter = 0.9 millimeter Zero mistake = 0 millimeter concluding reading = 18 millimeter + 0.9 millimeter − 0 millimeter = 18.9 millimeter

### 2. Reading Vernier Caliper Model 2 (0.05 mm Resolution)

This model has **10 divisions per cm on its main scale** and **20 divisions on its vernier scale**. Example of vernier caliper that comes with this graduation model is Mitutoyo 531-128. See the follow image when this commencement model shows no zero error. The smallest read on the chief scale is

1 curium : 10 divisions = 1 millimeter

The smallest read on the vernier scale is

1 millimeter : 20 divisions = 0.05 millimeter

**Reading Metric Vernier Caliper Model 2 Case 1 (With No Zero Error)**

Main scale = 10 × 1 millimeter = 10 millimeter Vernier scale = 3 × 0.05 millimeter = 0.15 millimeter Zero error = 0 millimeter final examination reading = 10 millimeter + 0.15 millimeter − 0 millimeter = 10.15 millimeter

**Reading Metric Vernier Caliper Model 2 Case 2 (With Negative Zero Error)**

Main scale = −1 × 1 millimeter = −1 millimeter Vernier Scale = 17 × 0.05 millimeter = 0.85 millimeter Zero error = −1 mm + 0.85 millimeter = −0.15 millimeter Main scale = 13 × 1 millimeter = 13 millimeter Vernier scale = 7 × 0.05 millimeter = 0.35 millimeter Zero error = −0.15 millimeter final read = 13 millimeter + 0.35 millimeter − ( −0.15 millimeter ) = 13.35 millimeter + 0.15 millimeter = 13.50 millimeter

**Reading Metric Vernier Caliper Model 2 Case 3 (With Positive Zero Error)**

Main scale = 0 × 1 millimeter = 0 millimeter Vernier Scale = 3 × 0.05 millimeter = 0.15 millimeter Zero erroneousness = 0 millimeter + 0.15 millimeter = 0.15 millimeter Main scale = 18 × 1 millimeter = 18 millimeter Vernier scale = 19 × 0.05 millimeter = 0.95 millimeter Zero error = 0.15 millimeter final read = 18 millimeter + 0.95 millimeter − 0.15 millimeter = 18.80 millimeter

### 3. Reading Vernier Caliper Model 3 (0.1 mm Resolution)

This model has **10 divisions per cm on its main scale** and **10 divisions on its vernier scale**. Examples of vernier caliper that come with this graduation model are EISCO PH0078B and Vikye. See the watch image when this graduation model shows no zero error. The smallest learn of the independent scale is :

1 centimeter : 10 divisions = 1 millimeter

The smallest read of the vernier scale is

1 millimeter : 10 divisions = 0.1 millimeter

**Reading Metric Vernier Caliper Model 3 Case 1 (With No Zero Error)**

Main scale = 12 × 1 millimeter = 12 millimeter Vernier scale = 5 × 0.1 millimeter = 0.5 millimeter Zero error = 0 millimeter concluding reading = 12 millimeter + 0.5 millimeter − 0 millimeter = 12.5 millimeter

**Reading Metric Vernier Caliper Model 3 Case 2 ****(With Negative Zero Error)**

Main scale = −1 × 1 millimeter = −1 millimeter Vernier Scale = 7 × 0.1 millimeter = 0.7 millimeter Zero error = −1 mm + 0.7 millimeter = −0.3 millimeter Main scale = 19 × 1 millimeter = 19 millimeter Vernier plate = 9 × 0.1 = 0.9 millimeter Zero error = −0.3 millimeter final learn = 19 millimeter + 0.9 millimeter − ( −0.3 millimeter ) = 20.2 millimeter

**Reading Metric Vernier Caliper Model 3 Case 3 (With Positive Zero Error)**

Main plate = 0 × 1 millimeter = 0 millimeter Vernier Scale = 3 × 0.1 millimeter = 0.3 millimeter Zero error = 0 millimeter + 0.3 millimeter = 0.3 millimeter Main scale = 10 × 1 millimeter = 10 millimeter Vernier scale = 3 × 0.1 millimeter = 0.3 millimeter Zero mistake = 0.3 millimeter concluding read = 10 millimeter + 0.3 millimeter − 0.3 millimeter = 10 millimeter

## How to Read Vernier Caliper in inches (Imperial)

The imperial ( edge ) vernier calipers may come in decimal fraction or fractional resolution. The decimal settlement is normally 0.001″, while the fractional resoluteness is normally 1/128″. however, the decimal resolution models vary in terms of commencement models. Some of them have the main scale graduated with 50 divisions per column inch, and the vernier scale graduated with 20 divisions. Another model has the independent scale graduated with 40 divisions per edge while the vernier scale graduated with 25 divisions. And another decimal fraction model has the main scale graduated with 20 divisions per column inch while the vernier scale graduated with 50 divisions .

### 1. Reading Imperial Vernier Caliper Model 1 (0.001″ Resolution)

This model has **50 divisions per inch on its main scale** and **20 divisions on its vernier scale**. Example of vernier caliper that comes with this gradation model is Starrett 456AZ. See the follow image when this graduation model shows no zero mistake. The smallest read of the main scale is

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1″ : 50 divisions = 0.02″

The smallest read of the vernier scale is

0.02″ : 20 divisions = 0.001″

**Reading Imperial Vernier Caliper Model 1 Case 1 (With No Zero Error)**

Main scale = 50 × 0.02″ = 1″ Vernier scale = 3 × 0.001″ = 0.003″ Zero error = 0″ final take = 1″ + 0.003″ − 0″ = 1.003″

**Reading Imperial Vernier Caliper Model 1 Case 2 (With Negative Zero Error)**

Main scale = −1 × 0.02″ = −0.02″ Vernier scale = 17 × 0.001″ = 0.017″ Zero error = −0.020″ + 0.017″ = −0.003″ Main scale = 56 × 0.02″ = 1.12″ Vernier scale = 17 × 0.001″ = 0.017″ Zero error = −0.003″ final examination read = 1.12″ + 0.017″ − ( −0.003″ ) = 1.137″ + 0.003″ = 1.140″

**Reading Imperial Vernier Caliper Model 1 Case 3 (With Positive Zero Error)**

Main scale = 0 × 0.02″ = 0″ Vernier scale = 3 × 0.001″ = 0.003″ Zero error = 0″ + 0.003″ = 0.003″ Main scale = 56 × 0.02″ = 1.12″ Vernier scale = 5 × 0.001″ = 0.005″ Zero mistake = 0.003″ concluding reading = 1.12″ + 0.005″ − 0.003″ = 1.122″

### 2. Reading Imperial Vernier Caliper Model 2 (0.001″ Resolution)

This model has **40 divisions per inch on its main scale** and **25 divisions on its vernier scale**. Example of vernier caliper that comes with this gradation model is Mitutoyo 532-119. See the adopt image when this graduation model shows no zero error. The smallest read of the main scale is

1″ : 40 divisions = 0.025″

The smallest recitation of the vernier scale is

0.025″ : 25 divisions = 0.001″

**Reading Imperial Vernier Caliper Model 2 Case 1 (With No Zero Error)**

Main scale = 40 × 0.025″ = 1″ Vernier scale = 3 × 0.001″ = 0.003″ Zero error = 0″ final read = 1″ + 0.003″ − 0″ = 1.003″

**Reading Imperial Vernier Caliper Model 2 Case 2 (With Negative Zero Error)**

Main scale = −1 × 0.025″ = −0.025″ Vernier scale = 22 × 0.001″ = 0.022″ Zero error = −0.025″ + 0.022″ = −0.003″ Main scale = 51 × 0.025″ = 1.275″ Vernier scale = 0 × 0.001″ = 0″ Zero error = −0.003″ final reading = 1.275″ + 0″ − ( −0.003″ ) = 1.275″ + 0.003″ = 1.278″

**Reading Imperial Vernier Caliper Model 2 Case 3 (With Positive Zero Error)**

Main scale = 0 × 0.025″ = 0″ Vernie scale = 3 × 0.001″ = 0.003″ Zero erroneousness = 0″ + 0.003″ = 0.003″ Main scale = ( 17 × 4 ) × 0.025″ = 1.7″ Vernier scale = 10 × 0.001″ = 0.010″ Zero error = 0.003″ final interpretation = 1.7″ + 0.010″ − 0.003″ = 1.710″ − 0.003″ = 1.707″

**Reading Imperial Vernier Caliper Model 2 Case 4 (With No Zero Error)**

Main scale = ( 19 × 4 ) × 0.025″ = 1.9″ Vernier scale = 10 × 0.001″ = 0.010″ Zero error = 0″ concluding read = 1.9″ + 0.010″ − 0″ = 1.910″

### 3. Reading Imperial Vernier Caliper Model 3 (0.001″ Resolution)

This model has **20 divisions per inch on its main scale** and **50 divisions on its vernier scale**. Example of vernier caliper that comes with this graduation model is Mitutoyo 534-117. See the be image when this graduation model shows no zero error. The smallest reading of the main scale is

1″ : 20 divisions = 0.05″

The smallest reading of the vernier scale is

0.05″ : 50 divisions = 0.001″

**Reading Imperial Vernier Caliper Model 3 Case 1 (With No Zero Error)**

Main scale = 20 × 0.05″ = 1″ Vernier scale = 3 × 0.001″ = 0.003″ Zero erroneousness = 0″ final read = 1″ + 0.003″ − 0″ = 1.003″

**Reading Imperial Vernier Caliper Model 3 Case 2 (With Negative Zero Error)**

Main scale = −1 × 0.05″ = −0.05″ Vernier scale = 47 × 0.001″ = 0.047″ Zero mistake = −0.050″ + 0.047″ = −0.003″ Main scale = 19 × 0.05″ = 0.95″ Vernier scale = 49 × 0.001″ = 0.049″ Zero error = −0.003″ concluding read = 0.95″ + 0.049″ − ( −0.003″ ) = 0.999″ + 0.003″ = 1.002″

**Reading Imperial Vernier Caliper Model 3 Case 3 (With Positive Zero Error)**

Main scale = −0 × 0.05″ = 0″ Vernier scale = 3 × 0.001″ = 0.003″ Zero erroneousness = 0″ + 0.003″ = 0.003″ Main scale = 18 × 0.05″ = 0.9″ Vernier scale = 39 × 0.001″ = 0.039″ Zero error = 0.003″ final examination read = 0.9″ + 0.039″ − 0.003″ = 0.939″ − 0.003″ = 0.936″

### 4. Reading Imperial Vernier Caliper Model 4 (1/128″ Resolution)

This model has **16 divisions per inch on its main scale** and **8 divisions on its vernier scale**. Example of vernier caliper that comes with this graduation model is Mitutoyo 531-128. See the follow picture when this commencement model shows no zero error. The smallest reading of the independent scale is

1″ : 16 divisions = 1/16″

The smallest reading of the vernier scale is

1/16″ : 8 divisions = 1/128″

**Reading Imperial Vernier Caliper Model 4 Case 1 (With No Zero Error)**

Main scale = 16 × 1/16″ = 1″ Vernier scale = 3 × 1/128″ = 3/128″ Zero mistake = 0″ final read = 1″ + 3/128″ − 0″ = 1 3/128″

**Reading Imperial Vernier Caliper Model 4 Case 2 (With Negative Zero Error)**

Main scale = −1 × 1/16″ = −1/16″ Vernier scale = 7 × 1/128″ = 7/128″ Zero error = −8/128 + 7/128″ = −1/128″ Main scale = 14 × 1/16″ = 14/16″ ( 7/8″ ) Vernier scale = 7 × 1/128″ = 7/128″ Zero error = −1/128″ final learn = 14/16″ + 7/128″ − ( −1/128″ ) = 112/128″ + 7/128″ + 1/128″ = 120/128″ ( 15/16″ )

**Reading Imperial Vernier Caliper Model 4 Case 3 (With Positive Zero Error)**

Main scale = 0 × 1/16″ = 0″ Vernier scale = 1 × 1/128″ = 1/128″ Zero error = 0″ + 1/128″ = 1/128″ Main scale = 8 × 1/16″ = 8/16″ ( 1/2″ ) Vernier scale = 2 × 1/128″ = 2/128″ Zero error = 1/128″ concluding reading = 8/16″ + 2/128″ − 1/128″ = 64/128″ + 2/128″ − 1/128″ = 65/128″

**Reading Imperial Vernier Caliper Model 4 Case 4 (With No Zero Error)**

Main scale = 30 × 1/16″ = 30/16″ = 1 14/16″ Vernier scale = 3 × 1/128″ = 3/128″ Zero error = 0″ final examination understand = 1 14/16″ + 3/128″ − 0″ = 1 112/128″ + 3/128″ = 1 115/128″

## Conclusion

Learning how to read vernier caliper benefits you to accomplish before using it. Unlike digital caliper or dial caliper that is relatively easy to read, reading vernier caliper takes more effort to be familiar with.

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aside from that benefit, learning how to read the vernier caliper means you are learning to read the vernier scale. This scale can be found in respective linear measuring instruments such as vernier scale micrometer, vernier depth estimate, etc. In short, the open tone that you have to do is to ensure the value of the smallest division of the main scale and the vernier scale. then, you have to check the zero mistake. If the zero commemorate is not aligned, you have to measure the rate. then, read the chief and vernier scale. ultimately, add the learn of the chief scale, vernier scale, and zero error raw. The solution of these three readings is the final read. actually, when you calibrate the vernier caliper, you are doing measurement and calculation surely, you have to add the uncertainty value. however, since this topic entirely covers how to read vernier caliper as a general method acting ( not for calibration ), we don ’ t take doubt into the calculation .