Cucurbita – Wikipedia

Genus of herbaceous vines in the gourd family, Cucurbitaceae

Various sizes, shapes, and colors of Cucurbita
Cucurbita fruits come in an assortment of colors and sizes.
Cultivated Cucurbita of Canada.jpg
Cross section of Cultivated Cucurbita of Canada.
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Rosids
Order: Cucurbitales
Family: Cucurbitaceae
Tribe: Cucurbiteae
Genus: Cucurbita
  • Mellonia Gasp.
  • Melopepo Mill.
  • Ozodycus Raf.
  • Pepo Mill.
  • Pileocalyx Gasp.
  • Sphenantha Schrad.
  • Tristemon Scheele 1848, illegitimate homonym, not Raf. 1819 (Juncaginaceae) nor Raf. 1838 (Juncaceae) nor Klotzsch 1838 (Ericaceae)[2]

Cucurbita ( Latin for gourd ) [ 3 ] [ 4 ] is a genus of herbaceous fruits in the gourd family, Cucurbitaceae ( besides known as cucurbits or cucurbi ), native to the Andes and Mesoamerica. Five comestible species are grown and consumed for their human body and seeds. They are variously known as squash, pumpkin, or gourd, depending on species, variety, and local parlance. [ a ] other kinds of gourd, besides called bottle-gourds, are native to Africa and belong to the genus Lagenaria, which is in the same syndicate and subfamily as Cucurbita, but in a different tribe. These early gourds are used as utensils or vessels, and their young fruits are consume much like those of the Cucurbita species.

Most Cucurbita species are herbaceous vines that grow respective meters in length and have tendrils, but non-vining “ bush ” cultivars of C. pepo and C. maxima have besides been developed. The yellow or orange flowers on a Cucurbita plant are of two types : female and male. The female flowers produce the fruit and the male flowers produce pollen. many North and Central American species are visited by specialist bee pollinators, but early insects with more cosmopolitan feed habits, such as honey bees, besides sojourn. There is debate about the taxonomy of the genus, as the total of accept species varies from 13 to 30. The five domesticate species are Cucurbita argyrosperma, C. ficifolia, C. maxima, C. moschata, and C. pepo. All of these can be treated as winter squash because the adult fruits can be stored for months ; however, C. pepo includes some cultivars that are well used only as summer squash. The fruits of the genus Cucurbita are good sources of nutrients, such as vitamin A and vitamin C, among other nutrients according to species. The fruits have many culinary uses including pumpkin pie, biscuits, bread, desserts, puddings, beverages, and soups. Although botanical fruits, Cucurbita gourds such as squash are typically cooked and eaten as vegetables. Pumpkins see more change habit, and are eaten both as vegetables and as desserts such as pumpkin pie .

description [edit ]

C. pepo pumpkins – the two bright orange ones in center right, and squashes C. maxima, all others pumpkins – the two undimmed orange ones in plaza right, and squashes, all others Cucurbita species fall into two main groups. The first group are annual or ephemeral perennial vines and are mesophytic, i.e. they require a more or less continuous water supply. The moment group are perennials growing in arid zones and indeed are xerophytic, tolerating dry conditions. Cultivated Cucurbita species were derived from the first group. Growing 5 to 15 meters ( 15 to 50 foot ) in acme or length, the plant stem turn produces tendrils to help it wax adjacent plants and structures or extend along the flat coat. Most species do not promptly beginning from the nodes ; a noteworthy exception is C. ficifolia, and the four early cultivated mesophytes do this to a lesser extent. The vine of the perennial Cucurbita can become semiwoody if left to grow. There is wide variation in size, form, and color among Cucurbita fruits, and even within a individual species. C. ficifolia is an exception, being highly uniform in appearance. [ 6 ] The geomorphologic variation in the species C. pepo [ 7 ] and C. maxima [ 8 ] is so huge that its respective subspecies and cultivars have been misidentified as wholly offprint species. [ 7 ]
Green Cucurbita moschata leaves with white spots Cucurbita moschata often have white spots near the veins. The leaves ofoften have blank spots near the veins. The typical cultivated Cucurbita species has five-lobed or palmately divided leaves with long petioles, with the leaves alternately arranged on the stem. The stem turn in some species are angular. All of the above-ground parts may be hairy with respective types of trichomes, which are frequently hardened and sharp. Spring-like tendrils grow from each node and are branching in some species. C. argyrosperma has ovate-cordate ( egg-shaped to cordate ) leaves. The shape of C. pepo leaves varies wide. C. moschata plants can have light or dense puberty. C. ficifolia leaves are slightly angular and have light puberty. The leaves of all four of these species may or may not have white spots. [ 9 ] The species are monoecious, with unisexual male ( antheral ) and female ( pistillate ) flowers on a one plant and these grow singly, appearing from the leaf axils. Flowers have five fused yellow to orange petals ( the corolla ) and a green bell-shaped calyx. male flowers in Cucurbitaceae by and large have five stamens, but in Cucurbita there are only three, and their anthers are joined together so that there appears to be one. [ 10 ] [ 11 ] Female flowers have thick pedicels, and an inferior ovary with 3–5 stigmas that each have two lobes. [ 9 ] [ 12 ] The female flowers of C. argyrosperma and C. ficifolia have larger corollas than the male flowers. [ 9 ] Female flowers of C. pepo have a small calyx, but the calyx of C. moschata male flowers is relatively inadequate. [ 9 ]
Cucurbita fruits are large and fleshy. [ 10 ] Botanists classify the Cucurbita fruit as a pepo, which is a particular type of berry derived from an inferior ovary, with a thick out wall or rind with hypanthium weave forming an epicarp around the ovary, and a fleshy interior composed of mesocarp and stone. The condition “ pepo ” is used primarily for Cucurbitaceae fruits, where this yield type is common, but the fruits of Passiflora and Carica are sometimes besides pepos. [ 13 ] [ 14 ] The seeds, which are attached to the ovary wall ( parietal placentation ) and not to the center, are large and reasonably flat with a large embryo that consists about wholly of two cotyledons. [ 12 ] Fruit size varies well : godforsaken fruit specimens can be angstrom belittled as 4 centimeters ( 1+1⁄2 in ) and some domesticate specimens can weigh well over 300 kilograms ( 660 pound ). [ 9 ] The stream global record was set in 2014 by Beni Meier of Switzerland with a 1,054.0-kilogram ( 2,323.7 pound ) pumpkin. [ 15 ]

taxonomy [edit ]

Cucurbita was formally described in a way that meets the requirements of modern botanical terminology by Linnaeus in his Genera Plantarum, [ 16 ] the fifth edition of 1754 in conjunction with the 1753 first version of Species Plantarum. [ 17 ] Cucurbita pepo is the type species of the genus. [ 17 ] [ 18 ] Linnaeus initially included the species C. pepo, C. verrucosa and C. melopepo ( both now included in C. pepo ), ampere well as C. citrullus ( watermelon, now Citrullus lanatus ) and C. lagenaria ( now Lagenaria siceraria ) ( both are not Cucurbita but are in the family Cucurbitaceae. [ 19 ] The Cucurbita digitata, C. foetidissima, C. galeotti, and C. pedatifolia species groups are xerophytes, arid zone perennials with storage roots ; the remainder, including the five domesticated species, are all mesophytic annuals or short-life perennials with no memory roots. [ 6 ] [ 20 ] The five domesticate species are by and large isolated from each other by sterility barriers and have different physiological characteristics. [ 20 ] Some hybrid pollinations can occur : C. pepo with C. argyrosperma and C. moschata ; and C. maxima with C. moschata. Cross pollination does occur readily within the kin Cucurbitaceae. [ 21 ] The buffalo gourd ( C. foetidissima ) has been used as an mediator, as it can be crossed with all the coarse Cucurbita. [ 12 ]
Several types and colors of Cucurbita C. maxima and C. pepo An categorization of fruits ofand diverse taxonomic treatments have been proposed for Cucurbita, ranging from 13 to 30 species. [ 3 ] In 1990, Cucurbita technical Michael Nee classified them into the succeed oft-cited 13 species groups ( 27 species total ), listed by group and alphabetically, with geographic lineage : [ 6 ] [ 22 ] [ 23 ] [ 24 ]
The taxonomy by Nee closely matches the species groupings reported in a copulate of studies by a botanic team led by Rhodes and Bemis in 1968 and 1970 based on statistical groupings of respective phenotypical traits of 21 species. Seeds for studying extra species members were not available. Sixteen of the 21 species were grouped into five clusters with the remaining five being classified individually : [ 27 ] [ 28 ]

  • C. digitata, C. palmata, C. californica, C. cylindrata, C. cordata
  • C. martinezii, C. okeechobeensis, C. lundelliana
  • C. sororia, C. gracilior, C. palmeri; C. argyrosperma (reported as C. mixta) was considered close to the three previous species
  • C. maxima, C. andreana
  • C. pepo, C. texana
  • C. moschata, C. ficifolia, C. pedatifolia, C. foetidissima, and C. ecuadorensis were placed in their own separate species groups as they were not considered significantly close to any of the other species studied.

evolution [edit ]

The wax evolution of this genus is unknown, and research was ongoing in 2014. [ 29 ] [ 30 ] The stick to cladogram of Cucurbita evolution is based upon a 2002 report of mitochondrial deoxyribonucleic acid by Sanjur and colleagues. [ 31 ]

generative biota [edit ]

Bee pollinating female Cucurbita flower Cucurbita female flower with pollinating female bloom with pollinating squash bees All species of Cucurbita have 20 pairs of chromosomes. [ 27 ] Many North and Central American species are visited by specialist pollinators in the apid tribe Eucerini, specially the genus Peponapis and Xenoglossa, and these squash bees can be crucial to the flowers producing fruit after pollination. [ 6 ] [ 32 ] [ 33 ]
Male Cucurbita flower Male bloom, contribution of the perianth and one filament removed When there is more pollen applied to the mark, more seeds are produced in the fruits and the fruits are larger with greater likelihood of growth, [ 34 ] an effect called xenia. competitively grow specimens are consequently often hand-pollinated to maximize the number of seeds in the fruit, which increases the yield size ; this pollination requires skilled proficiency. [ 35 ] [ 36 ] Seedlessness is known to occur in sealed cultivars of C. pepo. [ 37 ] [ 38 ] The most critical factors in blossoming and fruit set are physiological, having to do with the age of the plant and whether it already has developing fruit. [ 39 ] The plant hormones ethylene and auxin are key in fruit bent and exploitation. [ 40 ] Ethylene promotes the production of female flowers. When a plant already has a fruit develop, subsequent female flowers on the plant are less probable to mature, a phenomenon called “ first-fruit dominance ”, [ 39 ] and male flowers are more frequent, an consequence that appears ascribable to reduced natural ethylene production within the plant stem. [ 41 ] Ethephon, a plant growth regulator product that is converted to ethylene after metamorphosis by the plant, can be used to increase fruit and seeded player production. [ 35 ] [ 42 ] The plant hormone gibberellin, produced in the stamens, is substantive for the development of all parts of the male flowers. The development of female flowers is not even understand. [ 43 ] Gibberellin is besides involved in other developmental processes of plants such as seed and stem emergence. [ 44 ]

germination and seedling growth [edit ]

Kabocha seedling at seven days age Kabocha seedling seven days after being sown Seeds with maximum germination likely develop ( in C. moschata ) by 45 days after blossoming, and seeded player system of weights reaches its maximum 70 days after blossoming. [ 45 ] Some varieties of C. pepo germinate best with eight hours of sunlight casual and a planting depth of 1.2 centimeters ( 1⁄2 in ). Seeds planted deeper than 12.5 centimeters ( 5 in ) are not probably to germinate. [ 46 ] In C. foetidissima, a weedy species, plants younger than 19 days old are not able to sprout from the roots after removing the shoots. In a seed batch with 90 percentage germination rate, over 90 percentage of the plants had sprouted after 29 days from planting. [ 47 ] Experiments have shown that when more pollen is applied to the stigma, arsenic well as the fruit containing more seeds and being larger ( the xenia effect mentioned above ), the germination of the seeds is besides faster and more likely, and the seedlings are larger. [ 34 ] Various combinations of mineral nutrients and light have a significant impression during the diverse stages of plant growth. These effects vary significantly between the different species of Cucurbita. A type of store phosphorus called phytate forms in seed tissues as spherical crystalline intrusions in protein bodies called globoids. Along with other nutrients, phytate is used wholly during seedling growth. [ 48 ] Heavy metallic element contamination, including cadmium, has a significant negative impact on plant growth. [ 49 ] Cucurbita plants grown in the spring tend to grow larger than those grown in the fall. [ 50 ]

distribution and habitat [edit ]

Very large orange pumpkins A festival-winning pumpkin in 2009 weighing 742 kilograms ( 1,636 pound ) archaeological investigations have found testify of domestication of Cucurbita going back over 8,000 years from the identical southern parts of Canada down to Argentina and Chile. Centers of tameness stretch from the Mississippi River watershed and Texas down through Mexico and Central America to northern and western South America. [ 6 ] Of the 27 species that Nee delineates, five are domesticated. Four of them, C. argyrosperma, C. ficifolia, C. moschata, and C. pepo, originated and were domesticated in Mesoamerica ; for the fifth, C. maxima, these events occurred in South America. [ 9 ] Within C. pepo, the pumpkins, the scallops, and possibly the crooknecks are ancient and were domesticated at different times and places. The domesticate forms of C. pepo have larger fruits than non-domesticated forms and seeds that are bigger but fewer in count. [ 51 ] In a 1989 study on the origins and development of C. pepo, botanist Harry Paris suggested that the original hazardous specimen had a small beat fruit and that the modern pumpkin is its direct descendant. He suggested that the crookneck, cosmetic gourd, and scallop are early variants and that the acorn is a cross between the scallop and the pumpkin. [ 51 ]
Sliced butternut squash C. moschata ‘Butternut’ ‘Butternut ‘ C. argyrosperma is not vitamin a far-flung as the other species. The angry phase C. a. subsp. sororia is found from Mexico to Nicaragua, and cultivated forms are used in a reasonably wide-eyed area stretching from Panama to the southeastern United States. [ 9 ] It was credibly bred for its seeds, which are boastfully and eminent in oil and protein, but its flesh is of poorer quality than that of C. moschata and C. pepo. It is grown in a broad altitudinal range : from sea tied to vitamin a high as 1,800 meters ( 5,900 foot ) in dry areas, normally with the habit of irrigation, or in areas with a defined showery temper, where seeds are sown in May and June. [ 9 ] C. ficifolia and C. moschata were originally thought to be asian in lineage, but this has been disproven. The origin of C. ficifolia is Latin America, most probably southerly Mexico, Central America, or the Andes. It grows at elevations ranging from 1,000 to 3,000 meters ( 3,300 to 9,800 foot ) in areas with heavy rain. It does not hybridize well with the other cultivated species as it has importantly different enzymes and chromosomes. [ 9 ] C. maxima originated in South America over 4,000 years ago, [ 31 ] probably in Argentina and Uruguay. The plants are sensitive to frost, and they prefer both bright sunlight and territory with a ph of 6.0 to 7.0. [ 52 ] C. maxima did not start to spread into North America until after the arrival of Columbus. Varieties were in use by native peoples of the United States by the sixteenth hundred. [ 6 ] Types of C. maxima include triloba, [ 53 ] zapallito, [ 54 ] zipinka, [ 55 ] Banana, Delicious, Hubbard, Marrow ( C. maxima Marrow ), Show, and Turban. [ 56 ]
Curved green squashes C. moschata) fruit of the ‘Tromboncino ‘ cultivar of the Crookneck ( Group are eaten either when very young, or as mature winter squash. C. moschata is native to Latin America, but the accurate location of lineage is uncertain. [ 57 ] It has been portray in Mexico, Belize, Guatemala, and Peru for 4,000–6,000 years and has spread to Bolivia, Ecuador, Panama, Puerto Rico, and Venezuela. This species is closely related to C. argyrosperma. A diverseness known as the Seminole Pumpkin has been cultivated in Florida since before the arrival of Columbus. Its leaves are 20 to 30 centimeters ( 8 to 12 in ) wide. It by and large grows at low elevations in hot climates with heavy rain, but some varieties have been found above 2,200 meters ( 7,200 foot ). [ 9 ] Groups of C. moschata include Cheese, Crookneck ( C. moschata ), and Bell. [ 56 ]

C. pepo is one of the oldest, if not the oldest, domesticated species with the oldest know locations being Oaxaca, Mexico, 8,000–10,000 years ago, and Ocampo, Tamaulipas, Mexico, about 7,000 years ago. It is known to have appeared in Missouri, United States, at least 4,000 years ago. [ 6 ] [ 9 ] [ 58 ] [ 59 ] Debates about the origin of C. pepo have been ongoing since at least 1857. [ 60 ] There have traditionally been two opposing theories about its origin : 1 ) that it is a lineal descendant of C. texana and 2 ) that C. texana is merely feral C. pepo. [ 6 ] A more late hypothesis by botanist Thomas Andres in 1987 is that descendants of C. fraterna hybridized with C. texana, [ 61 ] resulting in two discrete domestication events in two different areas : one in Mexico and one in the easterly United States, with C. fraterna and C. texana, respectively, as the ancestral species. [ 9 ] [ 31 ] [ 61 ] [ 62 ] C. pepo may have appeared in the Old World before moving from Mexico into South America. [ 9 ] It is found from sea horizontal surface to slightly above 2,000 meters ( 6,600 foot ). Leaves have 3–5 lobes and are 20–35 centimeters ( 8–14 in ) wide. All the subspecies, varieties, and cultivars are interfertile. [ 7 ] In 1986 Paris proposed a revised taxonomy of the edible cultivated C. pepo based chiefly on the supreme headquarters allied powers europe of the fruit, with eight groups. [ 51 ] [ 63 ] All but a few C. pepo cultivars can be included in these groups. [ 9 ] [ 63 ] [ 64 ] [ 65 ] There is one non-edible cultivated kind : C. pepo volt-ampere. ovifera. [ 66 ]

history and domestication [edit ]

The ancestral species of the genus Cucurbita were give in the Americas before the arrival of humans, [ 68 ] [ 69 ] and are native to the Americas. The likely center of origin is southern Mexico, spreading confederacy through what is now known as Mesoamerica, on into South America, and north to what is nowadays the southwestern United States. [ 68 ] Evolutionarily speak, the genus is relatively holocene in origin, dating back only to the Holocene, whereas the family Cucurbitaceae, in the human body of seeds alike to Bryonia, dates to the Paleocene. [ 70 ] Recent genomic studies support the idea that the Cucurbita genus underwent a whole-genome duplicate event, increasing their total of chromosomes and accelerating the rate at which their genomes evolve compared to other cucurbits. [ 71 ] [ 72 ] [ 73 ] No species within the genus is entirely genetically isolated. C. moschata can intercross with all the others, though the loanblend offspring may not themselves be fertile unless they become polyploid. [ 20 ] The genus was part of the polish of about every native peoples group from southern South America to southern Canada. [ 69 ] Modern-day cultivated Cucurbita are not found in the violent. [ 6 ] Genetic studies of the mitochondrial gene nad1 show there were at least six independent domestication events of Cucurbita separating domestic species from their wild ancestors. [ 31 ] Species native to North America include C. digitata ( prairie gourd ), [ 74 ] and C. foetidissima ( buffalo gourd ), [ 75 ] C. palmata ( coyote melon ), and C. pepo. [ 6 ] Some species, such as C. digitata and C. ficifolia, are referred to as gourds. Gourds, besides called bottle-gourds, which are used as utensils or vessels, belong to the genus Lagenaria and are native to Africa. Lagenaria are in the like class and subfamily as Cucurbita but in a different tribe. [ 76 ] The earliest know evidence of the domestication of Cucurbita dates back at least 8,000 years ago, predating the tameness of early crops such as gamboge and beans in the region by about 4,000 years. [ 6 ] [ 58 ] [ 59 ] [ 77 ] This tell was found in the Guilá Naquitz cave in Oaxaca, Mexico, during a series of excavations in the 1960s and 1970s, possibly beginning in 1959. [ 78 ] [ 79 ] Solid testify of domesticate C. pepo was found in the Guilá Naquitz cave in the form of increasing rind thickness and larger peduncles in the newer stratification layers of the cave. By c. 8,000 years BP the C. pepo peduncles found are systematically more than 10 millimeters ( 3⁄8 in ) thick. Wild Cucurbita peduncles are constantly below this 10 millimeter barrier. Changes in fruit shape and color indicate that intentional education of C. pepo had occurred by no later than 8,000 years BP. [ 12 ] [ 80 ] [ 81 ] During the same clock time inning, average rind thickness increased from 0.84–1.15 millimeters ( 1⁄32–3⁄64 in ). [ 82 ] Recent genomic studies suggest that Cucurbita argyrosperma was domesticated in Mexico, in the region that is presently known as the department of state of Jalisco. [ 83 ] Squash was domesticated first gear, followed by corn and then beans, becoming part of the Three Sisters agrarian organization of companion planting. [ 84 ] [ 85 ] The English password “ squash ” derives from askutasquash ( a fleeceable thing feed raw ), a bible from the Narragansett linguistic process, which was documented by Roger Williams, the fall through of Rhode Island, in his 1643 publication A Key Into the Language of America. [ 86 ] Similar words for squash exist in relate languages of the Algonquian kin. [ 51 ] [ 87 ]

product [edit ]

The family Cucurbitaceae has many species used as human food. [ 9 ] Cucurbita species are some of the most authoritative of those, with the assorted species being prepared and eaten in many ways. Although the stems and skins tend to be more bitter than the pulp, [ 89 ] [ 90 ] the fruits and seeds of domesticate varieties are quite edible and necessitate short or no homework. The flowers and new leaves and shoot tips can besides be consumed. [ 91 ] The seeds and fruits of most varieties can be stored for long periods of time, [ 6 ] peculiarly the sweet-tasting winter varieties with their compact, inedible skins. [ 92 ] Summer squash have a reduce, edible clamber. The seeds of both types can be roasted, feed raw, made into pumpkin seed oil, [ 67 ] ground into a flour or meal, [ 93 ] or otherwise prepare. Squashes are primarily grown for the fresh food market. [ 94 ] The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations ( FAO ) reported that the ranking of the top five squash-producing countries was stable between 2005 and 2009. Those countries are : China, India, Russia, the United States, and Egypt. By 2012, Iran had moved into the fifth slot, with Egypt falling to 6th. [ 88 ] [ dead link ] The entirely extra countries that rank in the top 20 where squashes are native are Cuba, which ranks 14th with 347,082 system of measurement tons, and Argentina, which ranks 17th, with 326,900 system of measurement tons. [ 88 ] In addition to being the 4th largest manufacturer of squashes in the populace, the United States is the universe ‘s largest importer of squashes, importing 271,614 measured tons in 2011, 95 percentage of that from Mexico. Within the United States, the states producing the largest amounts are Florida, New York, California, and North Carolina. [ 94 ]

Nutrients [edit ]

As an example of Cucurbita, sensitive summer squash is 94 % water, 3 % carbohydrates, and 1 % protein, with negligible fat message ( table ). In a 100-gram address serve, bleak squash supplies 69 kilojoules ( 16 kcal ) of food department of energy and is rich in vitamin C ( 20 % of the Daily Value, DV ), moderate in vitamin B6 and vitamin b2 ( 12–17 % DV ), but otherwise barren of appreciable alimentary subject ( table ), although the food contentedness of different Curcubita species may vary slightly. [ 95 ] Pumpkin seeds contain vitamin E, blunt protein, B vitamins and several dietary minerals ( see nutrition board at pepita ). [ 96 ] besides present in pumpkin seeds are unsaturated and saturated oils, palmitic, oleic and linoleic fatso acids, [ 97 ] ampere well as carotenoids. [ 98 ]

Toxins [edit ]

Cucurbitin is an amino acerb and a carboxy pyrrolidine that is found in crude Cucurbita seeds. [ 99 ] [ 100 ] It retards the development of parasitic flukes when administered to infected host shiner, although the effect is only seen if administration begins immediately after infection. [ 101 ] Cucurmosin is a ribosome inactivate protein found in the flesh and seed of Cucurbita, [ 102 ] [ 103 ] notably Cucurbita moschata. Cucurmosin is more toxic to cancer cells than healthy cells. [ 102 ] [ 104 ] Cucurbitacin is a establish steroid show in wild Cucurbita and in each member of the family Cucurbitaceae. Poisonous to mammals, [ 105 ] it is found in quantities sufficient to discourage herbivores. It makes wild Cucurbita and most cosmetic gourds, with the exception of an casual C. fraterna and C. sororia, bitterness to preference. [ 3 ] [ 61 ] [ 106 ] Ingesting besides much cucurbitacin can cause stomach cramps, diarrhea and even collapse. [ 89 ] This bitterness is particularly prevailing in wild Cucurbita ; in parts of Mexico, the pulp of the fruits is rubbed on a womanhood ‘s breast to wean children. [ 107 ] While the work of domestication has largely removed the bitterness from civilized varieties, [ 3 ] there are casual reports of cucurbitacin causing illness in humans. [ 3 ] Cucurbitacin is besides used as a lure in insect traps. [ 106 ]

Pests and diseases [edit ]

Cucurbita species are used as food plants by the larva of some Lepidoptera species, including the cabbage moth ( Mamestra brassicae ), Hypercompe indecisa, and the turnip moth ( Agrotis segetum ). [ 108 ] Cucurbita can be susceptible to the plague Bemisia argentifolii ( silverleaf whitefly ) [ 109 ] angstrom well as aphids ( Aphididae ), cucumber beetles ( Acalymma vittatum and Diabrotica undecimpunctata howardi ), squash microbe ( Anasa tristis ), the squash vine bore bit ( Melittia cucurbitae ), and the two-spotted spidermite ( Tetranychus urticae ). [ 110 ] The squash hemipterous insect causes major damage to plants because of its identical toxic saliva. [ 111 ] The red pumpkin beetle ( Aulacophora foveicollis ) is a unplayful plague of cucurbits, specially the pumpkin, which it can defoliate. [ 112 ] Cucurbits are susceptible to diseases such as bacterial wilt ( Erwinia tracheiphila ), anthracnose ( Colletotrichum spp. ), fusarium wilt ( Fusarium spp. ), phytophthora blight ( Phytophthora spp. urine molds ), and powdery mildew ( Erysiphe spp. ). [ 110 ] Defensive responses to viral, fungal, and bacterial leaf pathogens do not involve cucurbitacin. [ 105 ] Species in the genus Cucurbita are susceptible to some types of mosaic virus including : cucumber mosaic virus ( CMV ), papaya ringspot virus -cucurbit puree ( PRSV ), squash mosaic virus ( SqMV ), tobacco ringspot virus ( TRSV ), [ 113 ] watermelon mosaic virus ( WMV ), and zucchini yellow mosaic virus ( ZYMV ). [ 114 ] [ 115 ] [ 116 ] [ 117 ] PRSV is the merely one of these viruses that does not affect all cucurbits. [ 114 ] [ 118 ] SqMV and CMV are the most common viruses among cucurbits. [ 119 ] [ 120 ] Symptoms of these viruses show a high academic degree of similarity, which much results in lab investigation being needed to differentiate which one is affecting plants. [ 113 ]

human culture [edit ]

culinary uses [edit ]

Slice of yellowish pumpkin custard with brown shell C. maxima Pumpkin custard made from kabocha, a cultivated variant of long before european contact, Cucurbita had been a major food informant for the native peoples of the Americas, and the species became an crucial food for european settlers, including the Pilgrims, even featuring at the first Thanksgiving. [ 12 ] commercially produced pumpkin normally used in pumpkin pie is most much varieties of C. moschata ; Libby ‘s, by far the largest producer of processed pumpkin, uses a proprietary breed of the Dickinson pumpkin variety of C. moschata for its displace pumpkin. [ 121 ] other foods that can be made using members of this genus include biscuits, bread, cheesecake, desserts, donuts, granola, ice cream, lasagna dishes, pancakes, pudding, pumpkin butter, [ 122 ] salads, soups, and stuffing. [ 123 ] Squash soup is a dish in african cuisine. [ 124 ] The xerophytic species are proving useful in the search for alimentary foods that grow well in arid regions. [ 125 ] C. ficifolia is used to make indulgent and mildly alcoholic drinks. [ 9 ] In India, squashes ( ghiya ) are cooked with seafood such as prawns. [ 126 ] In France, marrows ( courges ) are traditionally served as a gratin, sieved and cooked with butter, milk, and egg, and flavored with salt, pepper, and nutmeg, [ 127 ] and as soups. In Italy, zucchini and larger squashes are served in a kind of regional dishes, such as cocuzze alla puviredda cooked with olive oil, salt and herb from Apulia ; as torta di zucca from Liguria, or torta di zucca e riso from Emilia-Romagna, the squashes being made into a pie filling with butter, ricotta, parmesan, egg, and milk ; and as a sauce for pasta in dishes like spaghetti alle zucchine from Sicily. [ 128 ] In Japan, squashes such as modest C. moschata pumpkins ( kabocha ) are eaten boiled with sesame sauce, fried as a tempura smasher, or made into balls with sweet potato and japanese batch yam. [ 129 ]

art, music, and literature [edit ]

Along with corn and beans, squash has been depicted in the art cultivate of the native peoples of the Americas for at least 2,000 years. [ 130 ] [ 131 ] For example, cucurbits are much represented in Moche ceramics. [ 130 ] [ 132 ] Though native to the western hemisphere, Cucurbita began to spread to other parts of the universe after Christopher Columbus ‘s arrival in the New World in 1492. [ 133 ] [ 134 ] Until recently, the earliest known depictions of this genus in Europe was of Cucurbita pepo in De Historia Stirpium Commentarii Insignes in 1542 by the german botanist Leonhart Fuchs, but in 1992, two paintings, one of C. pepo and one of C. maxima, painted between 1515 and 1518, were identified in festoons at Villa Farnesina in Rome. [ 135 ] besides, in 2001 depictions of this genus were identified in Grandes Heures of Anne of Brittany ( Les Grandes Heures d’Anne de Bretagne ), a french devotional book, an illuminate manuscript created between 1503 and 1508. This ledger contains an example known as Quegourdes de turquie, which was identified by cucurbit specialists as C. pepo subsp. texana in 2006. [ 136 ] In 1952, Stanley Smith Master, using the pen identify Edrich Siebert, wrote “ The Marrow Song ( Oh what a beauty ! ) ” to a tune in 6
8 time. It became a popular hit in Australia in 1973, [ 137 ] and was revived by the Wurzels in Britain on their 2003 album Cutler of the West. [ 138 ] [ 139 ] John Greenleaf Whittier wrote a poem entitled The Pumpkin in 1850. [ 140 ] “ The Great Pumpkin ” is a fabricated vacation trope in the comedian undress Peanuts by Charles M. Schulz. [ 141 ]

cleanse and personal worry uses [edit ]

C. foetidissima contains a saponin that can be obtained from the fruit and rout. This can be used as a soap, shampoo, and bleach. Prolonged contact can cause clamber annoyance. [ 142 ] [ 143 ] Pumpkin is besides used in cosmetics. [ 144 ]

family remedies [edit ]

Cucurbita have been used in respective cultures as tribe remedies. Pumpkins have been used by native Americans to treat intestinal worms and urinary ailments. This native american remedy was adopted by american doctors in the early nineteenth hundred as an anthelmintic for the extrusion of worms. [ 145 ] In southeast Europe, seeds of C. pepo were used to treat irritable bladder and benign prostate hyperplasia. [ 146 ] In Germany, pumpkin source is approved for use by the Commission E, which assesses family and herb tea medicine, for irritate bladder conditions and micturition problems of prostate hyperplasia stages 1 and 2, although the monograph published in 1985 noted a miss of pharmacological studies that could substantiate empirically find oneself clinical action. [ 147 ] The FDA in the United States, on the other hand, banned the sale of all such non-prescription drugs for the treatment of prostate enlargement in 1990. [ 148 ] In China, C. moschata seeds were besides used in traditional chinese music for the treatment of the parasitic disease schistosomiasis [ 149 ] and for the extrusion of tape worms. [ 150 ] In Mexico, herbalists use C. ficifolia in the impression that it reduces blood sugar levels. [ 151 ]

Festivals [edit ]

White, green, and orange squashes built into a Christmas tree shape A pyramid of squashes in the Waterlily House, Kew Gardens, 2013 Cucurbita fruits including pumpkins and marrows are celebrated in festivals in countries such as Argentina, Austria, [ 152 ] Bolivia, [ 153 ] Britain, Canada, [ 154 ] Croatia, [ 155 ] France, [ 156 ] [ 157 ] Germany, India, Italy, [ 158 ] [ 159 ] [ 160 ] [ 161 ] Japan, [ 162 ] Peru, [ 163 ] Portugal, Spain, [ 164 ] Switzerland, [ 165 ] and the United States. Argentina holds an annual countrywide pumpkin festival Fiesta Nacional del Zapallo ( “ Squashes and Pumpkins National Festival ” ), in Ceres, Santa Fe, [ 166 ] on the end day of which a Reina Nacional del Zapallo ( “ National Queen of the Pumpkin ” ) is chosen. [ 167 ] [ 168 ] [ 169 ] In Portugal the Festival da Abóbora de Lourinhã e Atalaia ( “ Squashes and Pumpkins Festival in Lourinhã and Atalaia “ ) is held in Lourinhã city, called the Capital Nacional da Abóbora ( the “ National Capital of Squashes and Pumpkins ” ). [ 170 ] Ludwigsburg, Germany per annum hosts the global ‘s largest pumpkin festival. [ 171 ] In Britain a giant kernel ( zucchini ) weighing 54.3177 kilograms ( 119 pound 12 oz ) was displayed in the Harrogate Autumn Flower Show in 2012. [ 172 ] In the US, pumpkin vomit is practiced competitively, with machines such as trebuchets and air travel cannons designed to throw integral pumpkins deoxyadenosine monophosphate far as possible. [ 173 ] [ 174 ] The Keene Pumpkin Fest is held annually in New Hampshire ; in 2013 it held the earth record for the most jack-o-lantern fungus fall in one station, 30,581 on October 19, 2013. [ 175 ] Halloween is wide celebrated with jack-o-lanterns made of large orange pumpkins carved with ghoulish faces and illuminated from inside with candles. [ 176 ] The pumpkins used for jack-o-lanterns are C. pepo, [ 177 ] [ 178 ] not to be confused with the ones typically used for pumpkin pie in the United States, which are C. moschata. [ 121 ] Kew Gardens marked Halloween in 2013 with a display of pumpkins, including a eminent pyramid made of many varieties of squash, in the Waterlily House during its “ IncrEdibles ” festival. [ 179 ]

See besides [edit ]

Notes [edit ]

  1. ^Cucurbita. Pumpkin and gourd are used to refer to species, varieties, and cultivars commonly referred to by those terms.[5] due to wide variation in how the terms squash, pumpkin, and gourd are used, even among academics, in this article, the condition squash can refer to any member of the genus. Pumpkin and gourd are used to refer to species, varieties, and cultivars normally referred to by those terms .

References [edit ]

  • The dictionary definition of Cucurbita at Wiktionary
  • Media related to Cucurbita at Wikimedia Commons
  • Data related to Cucurbita at Wikispecies
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