Piper, the pepper plants or pepper vines, is an economically and ecologically crucial genus in the syndicate Piperaceae. It contains about 1,000-2,000 species of shrub, herb, and lianas, many of which are dominant species in their native habitat. The diversification of this taxonomic group is of interest to understanding the development of plants.
Reading: Piper (plant) – Wikipedia
pepper plants belong to the magnoliids, which are angiosperms but neither monocots nor eudicots. Their family, Piperaceae, is most closely related to the lizardtail syndicate ( Saururaceae ), which in fact broadly look like smaller, more delicate and amphibious pepper plants. Both families have characteristic tail-shaped inflorescences covered in bantam flowers. A slightly less close relative is the pipevine family ( Aristolochiaceae ). A long-familiar and identical close relative – being besides part of the Piperaceae – are the radiator plants of the genus Peperomia. The scientific mention Piper and the common name “ pepper ” are derived from the Sanskrit condition pippali, denoting the long pepper ( P. longum ) .
distribution and ecology [edit ]
Piper species have a pantropical distribution, and are most normally found in the understory of lowland tropical forests, but can besides occur in clearings and in higher elevation life sentence zones such as cloud forests ; one species – the japanese Pepper ( P. kadsura ) from southerly Japan and southernmost Korea – is subtropical and can tolerate faint winter freeze. Peppers are frequently dominant species where they are found. Most Piper species are either herbaceous or vines ; some grow as shrub or about as small trees. A few species, normally called “ ant pipers ” ( e.g. Piper cenocladum ), live in a symbiosis with ants. The yield of the Piper establish, called a pepper when it is circle and pea-sized, as is common, is distributed in the wild chiefly by birds, but little carpophagous mammals – e.g. bats of the genus Carollia – are besides authoritative. Despite the high content of chemicals that are noxious to herbivores, some have evolved the ability to withstand the chemical defences of capsicum plants, for example the sematurine moth Homidiana subpicta or some flea beetles of the genus Lanka. The latter can be significant pests to pepper growers .
Piper and humans [edit ]
many pepper plants make good ornamentals for gardens in subtropical or ardent regions. Pepper vines can be used much as ivy in moderate climates, while early species, like lacquered pepper ( P. magnificum ) grow as ample, compress and attractive shrub with hard and glistening leaves. Smaller species, like Celebes pepper ( P. ornatum ) with its finely patterned leaves, are besides desirable as indoor batch plants. Unsustainable log of tropical primary forests is threatening a act of peppers. The extent of the effect of such sweeping habitat destruction on the genus is unknown, but in the forests of Ecuador – the entirely larger region for which comprehensive data exists [ 1 ] – more than a twelve species are known to be on the brink of extinction. On the other hand, other Piper species ( e.g. spiked pepper, P. aduncum ) have been wide distributed as a result of human bodily process and are a major incursive species in certain areas. The most significant homo function of Piper is not for its looks however, but ultimately for the broad range of herculean secondary compounds found particularly in the fruits .
As spice and vegetable [edit ]
For early spices called “ pepper ”, see Pepper ( disambiguation ) Culinary practice of pepper plants is attest possibly adenine early as 9,000 years ago. Peppercorn remains were found among the food reject left by Hoabinhian artisans at Spirit Cave, Thailand. It is likely that these plants were collected from the wild rather than intentionally grown. [ 2 ] [ 3 ]
Black pepper (Piper nigrum) corns, from left to right:
Green (pickled unripe fruits)
White (dried ripe seeds)
Black (dried unripe fruits) ) corns, from left to right : Green ( pickled green fruits ) White ( dried ripe seeds ) Black ( dried unripe fruits ) Use of peppercorns as barbed zest is significant on an international scale. By classical music antiquity, there was a vigorous deal of spices including black pepper ( P. nigrum ) from South Asia to Europe. The Apicius, a recipe collection complied about 400 AD, mentions “ pepper ” as a spiciness for most main dishes. [ 4 ] In the late Roman Empire, black pepper was expensive, but was available promptly adequate to be used more frequently than strategic arms limitation talks [ a ] or carbohydrate. As Europe moved into the early Middle Ages, trade routes deteriorated and the use of pepper declined reasonably, but peppercorns, storing easily and having a high mass per volume, never ceased to be a profitable trade wind item. In the Middle Ages, external traders were nicknamed Pfeffersäcke ( “ pepper-sacks ” ) in german towns of the Hanseatic League and elsewhere. Later, wars were fought by european powers, between themselves and in complex alliances and enmities with indian Ocean states, in function about see of the issue of spices, possibly the most archetypal being black pepper fruit. today, peppercorns of the three preparations ( green, white and black ) are one of the most wide use spices of plant lineage cosmopolitan. due to the wide distribution of Piper, the fruit of other species are besides significant spices, many of them internationally. long pepper ( P. longum ), is possibly the second-most popular Piper spiciness internationally ; it has a quite chili -like “ inflame ” and the solid inflorescence is used as the fruits are bantam. Cubeb ( P. cubeba ), besides known as tail pepper, played a major role in the spice craft. reputedly Philip IV of Spain suppressed trade in cubeb peppercorns at the end of the 1630s to capitalize on his share of the black pepper trade. [ 5 ] It remains a meaning spiciness around the indian Ocean region nowadays, however. west african pepper ( P. guineense ), is normally used in west african cuisine, and is sometimes used in the East African berbere zest mix. This species, despite being traded more extensively in earlier times, is less common outside Africa nowadays. not only the seeds of Piper are used in cooking. west african Pepper leaves, known locally as uziza, are used as a flavorer vegetable in nigerian stews. In Mexican -influenced fudge, hoja santa or mexican pepperleaf ( P. auritum ) has a assortment of uses. In Southeast Asia, leaves of two species of Piper have major importance in cook : lolot ( P. lolot ) is used to wrap kernel for grilling in the Indochina region, while angry betel ( P. sarmentosum ) is used crude or cooked as a vegetable in Malay and Thai cuisine ; [ 6 ] [ 7 ] The stems and roots of Piper chaba are used as a spiciness in Bangladeshi cuisine.
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As music [edit ]
Cubeb ( P. cubeba ) has been used in tribe medicine and herbalism equally well as, particularly in the early twentieth hundred, as a cigarette flavorer. P. darienense is used medically by the Kuna people of the Panama – Colombia frame region, and elsewhere it is used to intoxicate fish which then can be easily caught. Spiked pepper, much called matico appears to have strong bactericidal and antibiotic properties. Black pepper ( P. nigrum ) essential oil is sometimes used in herbalism, and long pepper ( P. longum ) is similarly employed in Ayurveda, where it was an component of Triphala Guggulu and ( together with black pepper ) of Trikatu pills, used for rasayana ( rejuvenating and detoxifying ) purposes. One Piper species has gained large-scale use as a stimulant. Betel ( P. betle ) leaves are used to wrap betel handle nut slices ; its fool helps release the provoke effect of these “ cookies ” which are widely known as pan in India. conversely, another Piper species, kava ( P. methysticum ), is used for its sedative and euphoriant effects. In the Pacific area, where it has been wide spread as a canoe implant, kava is used to produce a calm and socializing drink reasonably similar to alcohol and benzodiazapines but without many of the minus english effects and less of an addiction risk. It has besides become popular elsewhere in late decades, and is used as a medical plant. however, pills that contain parts of the wholly plant have occasionally shown a impregnable hepatotoxic impression, which has led to the ban of kava in many countries. On the other hand, the traditional planning of the root as a sedate drink appears to pose little, if any, such venture. [ 8 ] [ 9 ] [ needs update ]
In skill [edit ]
The genus contains species suitable for studying natural history, molecular biology, natural products chemistry, community ecology, and evolutionary biota. [ 10 ]
Crystallized Piper nigrum)piperine, extracted from black pepper ( Piper is a exemplary genus for research in ecology and evolutionary biota. The diversity and ecological importance of the genus makes it a impregnable campaigner for ecological and evolutionary studies. Most research has focused on the economically significant species P. nigrum ( black pepper ), P. methysticum ( kava ), and P. betle ( betel ). A holocene study based on DNA sequence analysis suggest that P. nigrum originated in the westerly Ghats hot spot in India. [ 11 ] The compel and facultative ant mutualists found in some Piper species have a solid influence on their biology, making them ideal systems for inquiry on the evolution of symbioses and the effect of mutualisms on biotic communities. Important secondary metabolites found in pepper plants are piperin and chavicine, which were first isolated from Black Pepper, and reported to have antibiotic activities. Preliminary research reports has shown that piperin has an antibacterial bodily process against respective bacteria such as S. aureus, [ 12 ] [ 13 ] Streptococcus mutans, [ 14 ] and gastric cancer pathogen Helicobacter pylori [ 15 ] and decreased H. pylori toxin entrance to gastric epithelial cells. [ 16 ] The piperidine functional group is named after the former, and piperazine ( which is not found in P. nigrum in noticeable quantities ) was in flex named after piperidine. The significant junior-grade metabolites of kava are kavalactones and flavokawains. Pipermethystine is suspected to be the main hepatotoxic compound in this plant ‘s stems and leaves .
Species [edit ]
The largest number of Piper species are found in the Americas ( about 700 species ), with about 300 species from southern Asia. There are smaller groups of species from the South Pacific ( about 40 species ) and Africa ( about 15 species ). The american english, asian, and South Pacific groups each appear to be monophyletic ; the affinity of the African species is unclear. [ 17 ] Some species are sometimes segregated into the genus Pothomorphe, Macropiper, Ottonia, Arctottonia, Sarcorhachis, Trianaeopiper, and Zippelia, but other sources keep them in Piper. [ 17 ] The species called “ Piper aggregatum “ and “ P. fasciculatum “ are actually Lacistema aggregatum, a plant from the syndicate Lacistemataceae .
Notes [edit ]
- ^Apicius generally uses garum generally uses fish sauce rather ; crude seawater and bombastic quantities of herbs were besides employed by many .
References [edit ]
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