Kidney stones – Treatment

Most kidney stones are small enough to be passed out in your pee and can probably be treated at home.

Treating small kidney stones

belittled kidney stones may cause trouble until you pass them, which normally takes 1 or 2 days. A GP may recommend a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug ( NSAIDs ) to help with pain. To ease your symptoms, a GP might besides recommend :

  • drinking plenty of fluids throughout the day
  • anti-sickness medicine
  • alpha-blockers (medicines to help stones pass)

You might be advised to drink up to 3 litres ( 5.2 pints ) of fluid throughout the day, every sidereal day, until the stones have cleared. To help your stones pass :

  • drink water, but drinks like tea and coffee also count
  • add fresh lemon juice to your water
  • avoid fizzy drinks
  • do not eat too much salt

Make surely you ‘re drinking adequate fluid. If your urine is black, it means you ‘re not drinking enough. Your urine should be pale in color. You may be advised to continue drinking this much fluid to prevent new stones forming. If your kidney stones are causing severe pain, your GP may send you to hospital for tests and treatment .

Treating large kidney stones

If your kidney stones are excessively big to be passed naturally, they ‘re normally removed by operation .

Surgery for treating kidney stones

The main types of surgery for removing kidney stones are :

  • shockwave lithotripsy (SWL)
  • ureteroscopy
  • percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL)

Your type of operation will depend on the size and placement of your stones .

Shock wave lithotripsy (SWL)

SWL involves using ultrasound ( high-frequency sound waves ) to pinpoint where a kidney stone is. Ultrasound shock waves are then sent to the stone from a machine to break it into smaller pieces so it can be passed in your urine. SWL can be an uncomfortable form of treatment, so it ‘s normally carried out after giving painkilling medication.

You may need more than 1 session of SWL to successfully treat your kidney stones .


Ureteroscopy involves passing a long, thin telescope called a ureteroscope through the tube urine passes through on its means out of the body ( the urethra ) and into your bladder. It ‘s then passed up into your ureter, which connects your bladder to your kidney. The surgeon may either try to lightly remove the stone using another instrument, or they may use laser energy to break it up into modest pieces so it can be passed naturally in your urine. Ureteroscopy is carried out under general anaesthetic, where you ‘re asleep .

Percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL)

PCNL involves using a thin telescopic instrument called a nephroscope. A modest geld ( incision ) is made in your back and the nephroscope is passed through it and into your kidney. The rock is either pulled out or broken into smaller pieces using a laser or pneumatic energy. PCNL is constantly carried out under general anesthetic .

Complications of treatment

Complications can occur after the treatment of large kidney stones. Your surgeon should explain these to you before you have the procedure.

possible complications will depend on the type of treatment you have and the size and position of your stones. Complications could include :

  • sepsis, an infection that spreads through the blood, causing symptoms throughout the whole body
  • a blocked ureter caused by stone fragments (the ureter is the tube that attaches the kidney to the bladder)
  • an injury to the ureter
  • a urinary tract infection (UTI)
  • bleeding during surgery
  • pain

page last reviewed : 30 April 2019
Next review due : 30 April 2022

source :
Category : Tutorial

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