Rose – Wikipedia

Genus of plants

A rose is either a woody perennial blossoming plant of the genus Rosa, in the family Rosaceae, or the flower it bears. There are over three hundred species and tens of thousands of cultivars. [ citation needed ] They form a group of plants that can be raise shrubs, climbing, or trailing, with stems that are frequently armed with sharp prickles. [ citation needed ] Their flowers vary in size and form and are normally large and glossy, in colours ranging from white through yellows and reds. Most species are native to Asia, with smaller numbers native to Europe, North America, and northwestern Africa. [ citation needed ] Species, cultivars and hybrids are all widely grown for their smasher and much are fragrant. Roses have acquired cultural meaning in many societies. resurrect plants range in size from compress, miniature roses, to climbers that can reach seven meters in acme. [ citation needed ] Different species hybridize easily, and this has been used in the development of the across-the-board range of garden roses .

etymology

The name rose comes from Latin rosa, which was possibly borrowed from Oscan, from greek ῥόδον rhódon ( Aeolic βρόδον wródon ), itself borrowed from Old Persian wrd- ( wurdi ), related to Avestan varəδa, Sogdian ward, Parthian wâr. [ 1 ] [ 2 ]

botany

Rose thorns are actually prickles – outgrowths of the epidermis Rose leaflets Exterior horizon of rose buds longitudinal incision through a originate rose hip The leaves are bear alternately on the stem turn. In most species they are 5 to 15 centimetres ( 2.0 to 5.9 in ) farseeing, pinnate, with ( 3– ) 5–9 ( –13 ) leaflets and basal stipules ; the leaflets normally have a serrate gross profit, and frequently a few small prickles on the bottom of the bow. Most roses are deciduous but a few ( peculiarly from Southeast Asia ) are evergreen or closely therefore. The flowers of most species have five petals, with the exception of Rosa sericea, which normally has entirely four. Each petal is divided into two distinct lobes and is normally white or pink, though in a few species yellow or red. Beneath the petals are five sepals ( or in the case of some Rosa sericea, four ). These may be long adequate to be visible when viewed from above and appear as fleeceable points alternating with the round petals. There are multiple superior ovaries that develop into achenes. [ 3 ] Roses are insect-pollinated in nature. The aggregate yield of the rose is a berry-like structure called a rose hep. Many of the domestic cultivars do not produce hips, as the flowers are so tightly petalled that they do not provide access for pollination. The hips of most species are crimson, but a few ( e.g. Rosa pimpinellifolia ) have dark purple to black hips. Each hep comprises an outer fleshy layer, the hypanthium, which contains 5–160 “ seeds ” ( technically dry single-seeded fruits called achenes ) embedded in a matrix of finely, but stiffly, hairs. Rose hips of some species, specially the andiron rose ( Rosa canina ) and rugosa rose ( Rosa rugosa ), are very full-bodied in vitamin C, among the richest sources of any plant. The hips are eaten by carpophagous birds such as thrushes and waxwings, which then disperse the seeds in their droppings. Some birds, particularly finches, besides eat the seeds. The acuate growths along a rose stem turn, though normally called “ thorns ”, are technically prickles, outgrowths of the epidermis ( the out level of weave of the bow ), unlike true thorns, which are modified stems. rise prickles are typically falcate hooks, which aid the rose in hanging onto other vegetation when growing over it. Some species such as Rosa rugosa and Rosa pimpinellifolia have densely packed directly prickles, probably an adaptation to reduce browse by animals, but besides possibly an adaptation to trap wind-blown sand and so reduce erosion and protect their roots ( both of these species grow naturally on coastal sandpaper dunes ). Despite the presence of prickles, roses are frequently browsed by deer. A few species of roses have only vestigial prickles that have no points .

evolution

The oldest remains of roses are from the Late Eocene Florissant Formation of Colorado. [ 4 ] Roses were show in Europe by the early Oligocene. [ 5 ] today ‘s garden roses come from 18th-century China. [ 6 ] Among the previous chinese garden roses, the Old Blush group is the most primitive, while newer groups are the most divers. [ 7 ]

Species

Blooming Rrses, assorted species at Rose Garden at Huntington Library in San Marino, California Rosa gallica ‘Evêque’, painted by ‘Evêque ‘, painted by Redouté The genus Rosa is composed of 140–180 species and divided into four subgenus : [ 8 ]

  • Hulthemia (formerly Simplicifoliae, meaning “with single leaves”) containing two species from southwest Asia, Rosa persica and Rosa berberifolia, which are the only roses without compound leaves or stipules.
  • Hesperrhodos (from the Greek for “western rose”) contains Rosa minutifolia and Rosa stellata, from North America.
  • Platyrhodon (from the Greek for “flaky rose”, referring to flaky bark) with one species from east Asia, Rosa roxburghii (also known as the chestnut rose).
  • Rosa (the type subgenus, sometimes incorrectly called Eurosa) containing all the other roses. This subgenus is subdivided into 11 sections.
    • Banksianae – white and yellow flowered roses from China.
    • Bracteatae – three species, two from China and one from India.
    • Caninae – pink and white flowered species from Asia, Europe and North Africa.
    • Carolinae – white, pink, and bright pink flowered species all from North America.
    • Chinensis – white, pink, yellow, red and mixed-colour roses from China and Burma.
    • Gallicanae – pink to crimson and striped flowered roses from western Asia and Europe.
    • Gymnocarpae – one species in western North America (Rosa gymnocarpa), others in east Asia.
    • Laevigatae – a single white flowered species from China.
    • Pimpinellifoliae – white, pink, bright yellow, mauve and striped roses from Asia and Europe.
    • Rosa (syn. sect. Cinnamomeae) – white, pink, lilac, mulberry and red roses from everywhere but North Africa.
    • Synstylae – white, pink, and crimson flowered roses from all areas.

Uses

Roses are good known as cosmetic plants grown for their flowers in the garden and sometimes indoors. They have been besides used for commercial perfumery and commercial cut flower crops. Some are used as landscape plants, for hedge and for early utilitarian purposes such as game cover and slope stabilization .

cosmetic plants

The majority of ornamental roses are hybrids that were bred for their flowers. A few, by and large species roses are grown for attractive or scented leaf ( such as Rosa glauca and Rosa rubiginosa ), ornamental thorns ( such as Rosa sericea ) or for their glossy fruit ( such as Rosa moyesii ). cosmetic roses have been cultivated for millennium, with the earliest know cultivation known to date from at least 500 BC in Mediterranean countries, Persia, and China. [ 9 ] It is estimated that 30 to 35 thousand rose hybrids and cultivars have been bred and selected for garden practice as flowering plants. [ 10 ] Most are double-flowered with many or all of the stamens having morphed into extra petals. In the early nineteenth century the Empress Josephine of France patronized the development of rose breeding at her gardens at Malmaison. As farseeing ago as 1840 a solicitation number over one thousand different cultivars, varieties and species was possible when a rosarium was planted by Loddiges nursery for Abney Park Cemetery, an early victorian garden cemetery and arboretum in England .

Cut flowers

Bouquet of pink roses Roses are a popular snip for both domestic and commercial cut flowers. generally they are harvested and cut when in bud, and held in refrigerate conditions until ready for display at their point of sale. In temperate climates, cut roses are frequently grown in greenhouses, and in warm countries they may besides be grown under binding in ordering to ensure that the flowers are not damaged by weather and that pest and disease control can be carried out efficaciously. significant quantities are grown in some tropical countries, and these are shipped by air to markets across the world. [ 11 ] Some kind of roses are artificially coloured using dye water, like rainbow roses .

perfume

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H

18

O) Geraniol ( Rose perfumes are made from rose oil ( besides called attar of roses ), which is a concoction of volatile essential oils obtained by steam distilling the break down petals of roses. An consociate product is rose water which is used for cook, cosmetics, music and religious practices. The production proficiency originated in Persia [ 12 ] and then spread through Arabia and India, and more recently into easterly Europe. In Bulgaria, Iran and Germany, damask roses ( Rosa × damascena ‘Trigintipetala ‘ ) are used. In early parts of the world Rosa × centifolia is normally used. The petroleum is diaphanous pale jaundiced or yellow-grey in color. ‘Rose Absolute ‘ is solvent-extracted with hexane and produces a dark oil, iniquity yellow to orange in color. The burden of oil extracted is about one three-thousandth to one six-thousandth of the slant of the flowers ; for exercise, about two thousand flowers are required to produce one gram of oil. The independent constituents of attar of roses are the fragrant alcohols geraniol and L- citronellol and rose camphor, an odorless solid composed of alkanes, which separates from rose oil. [ 13 ] β- Damascenone is besides a significant subscriber to the odorize.

food and drink

rise hips are gamey in vitamin C, are edible raw, [ 14 ] and occasionally made into jam, jelly, marmalade, and soup, or are brewed for tea. They are besides pressed and filtered to make rose pelvis syrup. Rose hips are besides used to produce rose hip seed anoint, which is used in clamber products and some constitution products. [ 15 ]
rise urine has a identical distinctive spirit and is used in Middle Eastern, Persian, and South asian cuisine —especially in sweets such as turkish delight, [ 16 ] barfi, baklava, halva, gulab jamun, knafeh, and nougat. rise petals or flower buds are sometimes used to flavour ordinary tea, or combined with early herbs to make herbal teas. A sweet continue of rose petals called gulkand is common in the amerind subcontinent. The leaves and wash roots are besides sometimes used to make tea. [ 14 ] In France, there is much use of rose syrup, most normally made from an distill of rose petals. In the indian subcontinent, Rooh Afza, a hard squash made with roses, is popular, as are rose-flavoured fixed desserts such as ice skim and kulfi. [ 17 ] [ 18 ] The flower stems and unseasoned shoots are comestible, as are the petals ( sans the white or greens bases ). [ 14 ] The latter are normally used as season or to add their odorize to food. [ 19 ] early minor uses include candied rose petals. [ 20 ] rise creams ( rose-flavoured fondant covered in chocolate, often topped with a crystallised rose petal ) are a traditional english confectionery widely available from numerous producers in the UK. Under the American Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, [ 21 ] there are only certain Rosa species, varieties, and parts are listed as generally recognized as safe ( GRAS ) .

  • Rose absolute: Rosa alba L., Rosa centifolia L., Rosa damascena Mill., Rosa gallica L., and vars. of these spp.
  • Rose (otto of roses, attar of roses): Ditto
  • Rose buds
  • Rose flowers
  • Rose fruit (hips)
  • Rose leaves: Rosa spp.[22]

medicine

The rose hip, normally from R. canina, is used as a minor source of vitamin C. The fruits of many species have meaning levels of vitamins and have been used as a food supplement. many roses have been used in herbal and tribe medicines. Rosa chinensis has long been used in chinese traditional medicine. This and other species have been used for abdomen problems, and are being investigated for controlling cancer growth. [ 23 ] In pre-modern medicine, diarrhodon ( Gr διάρροδον, “ colonial of roses ”, from ῥόδων, “ of roses ” [ 24 ] ) is a identify given to versatile compounds in which red roses are an ingredient .

art and symbolism

The long cultural history of the rose has led to it being used often as a symbol. In ancient Greece, the rose was closely associated with the goddess Aphrodite. [ 25 ] [ 26 ] In the Iliad, Aphrodite protects the body of Hector using the “ immortal petroleum of the rose ” [ 27 ] [ 25 ] and the archaic Greek lyric poet Ibycus praises a beautiful youth saying that Aphrodite nursed him “ among rose blossoms ”. [ 28 ] [ 25 ] The second-century AD Greek travel writer Pausanias associates the rose with the story of Adonis and states that the rose is bolshevik because Aphrodite wounded herself on one of its thorns and stained the flower bolshevik with her blood. [ 29 ] [ 25 ] Book Eleven of the ancient Roman fresh The Golden Ass by Apuleius contains a scenery in which the goddess Isis, who is identified with Venus, instructs the independent character, Lucius, who has been transformed into a donkey, to eat rose petals from a pennant of roses worn by a priest as part of a religious procession in holy order to regain his humanity. [ 26 ] Following the Christianization of the Roman Empire, the rose became identify with the Virgin Mary. The color of the rose and the number of roses received has symbolic representation. [ 30 ] [ 31 ] [ 26 ] The rose symbol finally led to the creation of the rosary and other devotional prayers in Christianity. [ 32 ] [ 26 ]
ever since the 1400s, the Franciscans have had a Crown Rosary of the Seven Joys of the Blessed Virgin Mary. [ 26 ] In the 1400s and 1500s, the Carthusians promoted the idea of sacred mysteries associated with the rose symbol and rose gardens. [ 26 ] Albrecht Dürer ‘s paint The Feast of the Rosary ( 1506 ) depicts the Virgin Mary distributing garlands of roses to her worshippers. [ 26 ] Roses symbolised the Houses of York and Lancaster in a conflict known as the Wars of the Roses. Roses are a prefer subject in art and appear in portraits, illustrations, on stamps, as ornaments or as architectural elements. The Luxembourg-born belgian artist and botanist Pierre-Joseph Redouté is known for his detail watercolours of flowers, particularly roses. Henri Fantin-Latour was besides a fecund cougar of inactive life, particularly flowers including roses. The rose ‘Fantin-Latour ‘ was named after the artist. other impressionists including Claude Monet, Paul Cézanne and Pierre-Auguste Renoir have paintings of roses among their works. In the nineteenth century, for case, artists associated the city of Trieste with a certain rare white rose, and this rose developed as the city ‘s symbol. It was not until 2021 that the rose, which was believed to be extinct, was rediscovered there. [ 33 ] In 1986 President Ronald Reagan signed legislation to make the rose [ 34 ] the floral emblem of the United States. [ 35 ]

Pests and diseases

barbarian roses are host plants for a number of pests and diseases. many of these affect other plants, including other genus of the Rosaceae. Cultivated roses are frequently subject to severe damage from insect, arachnid and fungal pests and diseases. In many cases they can not be usefully grown without regular treatment to control these problems .

See besides

References

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