How to Do CPR

cardiopulmonary resuscitation ( CPR ) is a hands-on emergency intervention used to restore emit and a pulse in a person who has gone into cardiac check. common causes of cardiac catch are a heart fire or near-drowning .

CPR involves performing chest compressions and, in some cases, rescue ( “ mouth-to-mouth ” ) breathe. These techniques can keep blood flowing to the brain and other organs until aesculapian avail arrives. When oxygen-rich lineage can not get to the brain, brain damage can occur within minutes .

Reading: How to Do CPR

This article explains the basic principles and techniques of how to perform CPR. You can then consider receiving your CPR certification via an on-line or in-person aim workshop .

Step-by-Step CPR Guide
Verywell / Cindy Chung

What to Do If Someone Needs CPR

ideally, everyone would be trained in CPR. If you ‘re not, you may be afraid to try to help person in an hand brake. calm, it ‘s always better to do what you can than to do nothing at all if it means potentially saving a person ‘s life. The american Heart Association recommends a slenderly different approach path to doing CPR depending on how well-trained you are :

  • If you are trained: Check to see if the person has a pulse and is breathing. If there is no pulse or breathing within 10 seconds, use a CPR compression rate of of 100 to 120 per minute, in cycles of 30 compressions followed by two rescue breaths. Repeat the sequence until the person starts breathing.
  • If you are untrained, or trained but not too confident in your abilities: If you’re not trained in CPR, or are unsure about giving rescue breaths, then use hands-only CPR. Hands-only CPR involves uninterrupted chest compressions of 100 to 120 per minute. You do not include rescue breathing with this technique, but you shouldn’t stop CPR until an EMT or other healthcare provider arrives, or you’re sure a pulse is restored.

CPR and COVID-19 Precautions

In January 2022, the American Heart Association guidelines were changed to advise healthcare providers to wear a respirator, like an N95 mask, along with early personal protective equipment ( PPE ) like a gown, gloves, and eye protective covering, when performing CPR on people with a suspected or confirm case of COVID-19. Members of the public besides should wear a well-fitting disguise when doing CPR .

What to Do Before Performing CPR

Time is of the kernel, but before you attempt CPR on person, follow these steps :

  1. Make sure the environment is safe. A fire, traffic accident, or other dangers could put your own life at risk.
  2. Try to wake the person. Tap on the person’s shoulder firmly and ask “Are you OK?” in a loud voice. Move on to the next steps after five seconds of trying to wake the patient.
  3. Call 911. Anytime a patient won’t wake up, call 911 immediately or ask a bystander to call. Even if you will perform CPR on the spot, it’s important to get paramedics to the scene as quickly as possible.
  4. Put the person on their back. If it’s possible that the person may have had a spinal injury, turn them carefully without moving the head or neck.
  5. Check for breathing. Tilt the patient’s head back to open the airway and determine if they are breathing. If the patient doesn’t take a breath after 10 seconds, start CPR.

Do You Give CPR to Someone Choking?

No, you use a different proficiency called the Heimlich maneuver to help person who is choking. If a person is ineffective to breathe, cough, address, or cry, they can not move air. A foreign body blocking the air passage needs to be removed by using the Heimlich. CPR would lone begin if the person had stopped breathing and lost their pulse .

How to Do CPR

once you have followed the above steps, here is how to perform CPR. Techniques vary slightly based on the age of the person. How to do CPR on an adult is different from how to do CPR on a toddler, and a distinguish technique is used for infants .


The play along steps use to adults and to children over 8 years old .

  1. Place your hands on the person’s chest. Imagine a line between the nipples and put the heel of one hand directly on that line, in the center of the chest (i.e., the sternum). Place your other hand on top of that hand. Center your weight directly over your hands.
  2. Perform chest compressions. Push hard, to a depth of at least 2 inches (but no deeper than 2.4 inches) and fast—about twice per second until the person responds. Your hands shouldn’t bounce, but you should lift your entire body weight off the patient in between each compression.
  3. Give rescue breaths. If you have had CPR training and feel comfortable performing the steps, push on the chest 30 times, then give two rescue breaths.
  4. Repeat. Repeat cycles in the CPR ratio of 30:2 (chest compressions and breaths) until help arrives or the patient wakes up.

Children 1 to 8 years old

The operation for giving CPR to a child between 1 to 8 is basically the same as that for an adult .

  1. Place your hands on the child’s chest. Place two hands (or one hand if the child is very small) on the child’s sternum.
  2. Perform chest compressions. Push hard, to a depth of at least 2 inches (but no deeper than 2.4 inches) and fast—about twice per second until the person responds.
  3. Give rescue breaths. If you have had CPR training and feel comfortable performing the steps, push on the chest 30 times, then give two rescue breaths.
  4. Repeat. Repeat cycles of 30 chest compressions and two breaths until help arrives or the patient wakes up.


  1. Flick the bottom of the foot to elicit a response. This takes the place of shaking the shoulders of an older person.
  2. Place two fingers of one hand in the center of the chest.
  3. Give chest compressions. Gently use your fingers to compress the chest about 1.5 inches deep. Perform two compressions per second, just as you would when giving an adult CPR.
  4. Perform rescue breathing. If you are comfortable giving rescue breaths, give two of them between each series of 30 chest compressions, just as you would with an older person.

What Each step Does

Each step of CPR serves an authoritative function. here ‘s what each one does :

Asking If the Person Is OK

Before attempting CPR, it ‘s crucial to make certain the person actually needs it. If the person wakes up when you shake them gently and talk to them, do n’t start CPR, but do get medical aid properly aside, specially if they seem confused or are ineffective to speak.

Calling 911

even if you end up reviving the person with CPR, they will need to be taken to the hospital by an ambulance ampere soon as possible .

If you do n’t succeed, an EMT may be able to resuscitate the person with medical equipment, such as an automatize external defibrillator ( AED ). An EMT may besides be able to talk you through performing CPR steps while they ‘re en path .

Chest Compressions

Compressing the chest moves blood through the genius, keeping it working until the heart can get started again. It ‘s critical to keep the blood flowing without break. It is possible to revive person with breast compressions alone ( without rescue breathing ) .

rescue Breathing

once known as mouth-to-mouth resuscitation, rescue breathe is intended to use your own breath to fill the person ‘s lungs with air travel and restore their ability to breathe .

Rescue rest has become one of the most controversial steps in CPR. The debate is ongoing about how much is adequate ( or besides much ) and whether it ‘s evening necessity. If you do perform rescue breaths, make certain you know how to do it correctly .

How to Get Certified

You can get certified in CPR by meeting the requirements of a CPR train program. These programs are offered in-person, on-line, or as a hybrid of both .

Classes are typically completed in two hours, depending on which format you choose ( as you can go at your own accelerate with on-line train ). once you have completed the class, you will be able to get a certificate .

CPR train courses are offered by hospitals, residential district centers, and national organizations such as the American Red Cross and the American Heart Association .

not every CPR class is the same. There are CPR classes for healthcare professionals american samoa well as CPR classes for the layman. Before you take a CPR course, make sure the class is right for you .

Frequently Asked Questions

  • What does CPR stand for?

    CPR stands for cardiopulmonary resuscitation. “ Cardio ” refers to the center and “ pneumonic ” refers to the lungs. CPR is used when person ‘s kernel and breathe have stopped .

  • When was CPR invented?

    CPR was invented in 1960, when a group of three doctors combined mouth-to-mouth breathing with breast compressions to create the lifesaving procedures involved in cardiopulmonary resuscitation .

  • How long does CPR certification take?

    Most in-person classes can be completed in about two hours. If you opt for a course with an on-line memorize component, you can go at your own pace. Once you ‘ve fulfilled all the requirements, you will receive a certificate.

  • Where should you place your hands when giving chest compressions to an infant during CPR?

    The placement is the same as for adults—on the kernel of the chest, between the nipples. The difference is that with an baby, you use only two fingers rather of your hands to perform chest of drawers compressions .

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