Google Search – Wikipedia

“ ” redirects here. For the company itself, see Google
Search engine from Google

Google Search ( besides known plainly as Google ) is a search engine provided by Google. Handling more than 3.5 billion searches per day, [ 3 ] it has a 92 % share of the global search engine marketplace. [ 4 ] It is besides the most-visited web site in the world. [ 5 ] The order of research results returned by Google is based, in partially, on a priority rank system called “ PageRank “. Google Search besides provides many different options for customize searches, using symbols to include, exclude, specify or require certain search behavior, and offers specialized synergistic experiences, such as flight status and software track, weather forecasts, currency, unit of measurement, and meter conversions, word definitions, and more. The main function of Google Search is to search for text in publicly accessible documents offered by world wide web servers, as opposed to other data, such as images or data contained in databases. It was primitively developed in 1996 by Larry Page, Sergey Brin, and Scott Hassan. [ 6 ] [ 7 ] [ 8 ] In 2011, Google introduced “ Google Voice Search “ to search for talk, rather than typed, words. [ 9 ] In 2012, Google introduced a Knowledge Graph semantic search feature. analysis of the frequency of search terms may indicate economic, social and health trends. [ 10 ] Data about the frequency of use of search terms on Google can be openly investigate via Google Trends and have been shown to correlate with influenza outbreaks and unemployment levels, and provide the information faster than traditional report methods and surveys. As of mid-2016, Google ‘s search engine has begun to rely on deep neural networks. [ 11 ]

search index

Google indexes hundreds of terabytes of data from web pages. [ 12 ] For websites that are presently down or otherwise not available, Google provides links to cached versions of the site, formed by the search engine ‘s latest index of that page. [ 13 ] Additionally, Google indexes some file types, being able to show users PDFs, Word documents, Excel spreadsheets, PowerPoint presentations, certain Flash multimedia content, and plain text files. [ 14 ] Users can besides activate “ SafeSearch “, a filtering engineering aimed at preventing denotative and pornographic subject from appearing in search results. [ 15 ] Despite Google search ‘s huge index, sources generally assume that Google is only indexing less than 5 % of the sum Internet, with the remainder belong to the deep web, inaccessible through its search tools. [ 12 ] [ 16 ] [ 17 ] In 2012, Google changed its search index tools to demote sites that had been accused of piracy. [ 18 ] In October 2016, Gary Illyes, a webmaster trends analyst with Google, announced that the search engine would be making a separate, chief web index dedicated for mobile devices, with a secondary, less up-to-date index for background use. The change was a reply to the continue emergence in mobile use, and a push for web developers to adopt a mobile-friendly adaptation of their websites. [ 19 ] [ 20 ] In December 2017, Google began rolling out the change, having already done thus for multiple websites. [ 21 ]

“ caffeine ” search architecture upgrade

In August 2009, Google invited world wide web developers to test a raw search architecture, codenamed “ Caffeine ”, and give their feedback. The new computer architecture provided no ocular differences in the exploiter interface, but added meaning focal ratio improvements and a new “ under-the-hood ” indexing infrastructure. The act was interpreted in some quarters as a response to Microsoft ‘s holocene spill of an upgrade adaptation of its own search service, renamed Bing, ampere well as the launch of Wolfram Alpha, a new search locomotive based on “ computational cognition ”. [ 22 ] [ 23 ] Google announced completion of “ Caffeine ” on June 8, 2010, claiming 50 % fresh results due to continuous updating of its index. [ 24 ] With “ Caffeine ”, Google moved its back-end index system aside from MapReduce and onto Bigtable, the company ‘s circulate database platform. [ 25 ] [ 26 ]

In August 2018, Danny Sullivan from Google announced a broad core algorithm update. As per current analysis done by the industry leaders Search Engine Watch and Search Engine Land, the update was to drop down the checkup and health-related websites that were not user friendly and were not providing good user know. This is why the industry experts named it “ medical officer ”. [ 27 ] Google reserves very high standards for YMYL ( Your money or Your life ) pages. This is because misinformation can affect users financially, physically, or emotionally. consequently, the update targeted particularly those YMYL pages that have low-quality content and misinformation. This resulted in the algorithm targeting health and medical-related websites more than others. however, many other websites from early industries were besides negatively affected. [ 28 ]

Performing a search

A definition yoke is provided for many search terms. Google Search consists of a series of localized websites. The largest of those, the site, is the top most-visited web site in the universe. [ 5 ] Some of its features include a definition associate for most searches including dictionary words, the total of results you got on your search, links to other searches ( e.g. for words that Google believes to be misspelled, it provides a link to the search results using its proposed spell ), the ability to filter results to a date range, [ 29 ] and many more .

Search syntax

Google search accepts queries as normal text, ampere well as individual keywords. [ 30 ] It automatically corrects apparent misspellings by default ( while offering to use the original spell as a selectable alternate ), and provides the same results careless of capitalization. [ 30 ] For more customize results, one can use a wide assortment of operators, including, but not limit to : [ 31 ] [ 32 ]

  • OR – Search for webpages containing one of two similar queries, such as marathon OR race
  • - (minus sign) – Exclude a word or a phrase, so that “apple -tree” searches where word “tree” is not used
  • "" – Force inclusion of a word or a phrase, such as “tallest building”
  • * – Placeholder symbol allowing for any substitute words in the context of the query, such as “largest * in the world”
  • .. – Search within a range of numbers, such as “camera $50..$100”
  • site: – Search within a specific website, such as “”
  • define: – Search for definitions for a word or phrase, such as “define:phrase”
  • stocks: – See the stock price of investments, such as “stocks:googl”
  • related: – Find webpages related to specific URL addresses, such as “”
  • cache: – Highlights the search-words within the cached pages, so that “ xxx” shows cached content with word “xxx” highlighted.
  • @ – Search for a specific word on social media networks, such as “@twitter”

Google besides offers a Google Advanced Search page with a web interface to access the boost features without needing to remember the special operators. [ 33 ]

Query expansion

Google applies question expansion to submitted search queries, using techniques to deliver results that it considers “ smart ” than the question users actually submitted. This proficiency involves respective steps, including : [ 34 ]

  • Word stemming – Certain words can be reduced so other, similar terms, are also found in results, so that “translator” can also search for “translation”
  • Acronyms – Searching for abbreviations can also return results about the name in its full length, so that “NATO” can show results for “North Atlantic Treaty Organization”
  • Misspellings – Google will often suggest correct spellings for misspelled words
  • Synonyms – In most cases where a word is incorrectly used in a phrase or sentence, Google search will show results based on the correct synonym
  • Translations – The search engine can, in some instances, suggest results for specific words in a different language
  • Ignoring words – In some search queries containing extraneous or insignificant words, Google search will simply drop those specific words from the query

A screenshot of suggestions by Google Search when “ wikip ” is typed In 2008, Google started to give users autocompleted search suggestions in a list below the search browning automatic rifle while typing, originally with the estimate result count previewed for each listed search suggestion. [ 35 ]

“ I ‘m Feeling Lucky ”

“ I ‘m Feeling Lucky ” redirects here. For the 2011 script by Douglas Edwards, see I’m Feeling Lucky ( book ) Google ‘s home page includes a button labeled “ I ‘m Feeling Lucky ”. This feature originally allowed users to type in their search question, click the button and be taken immediately to the first leave, bypassing the search results page. Clicking it while leaving the search box empty opens Google ‘s archive of Doodles. [ 36 ] With the 2010 announcement of Google Instant, an automatic have that immediately displays relevant results as users are typing in their question, the “ I ‘m Feeling Lucky ” button disappears, requiring that users opt-out of instant results through search settings to keep using the “ I ‘m Feeling Lucky ” functionality. [ 37 ] In 2012, “ I ‘m Feeling Lucky ” was changed to serve as an ad for Google services ; users hover their computer shiner over the button, it spins and shows an emotion ( “ I ‘m Feeling Puzzled ” or “ I ‘m Feeling Trendy ”, for case ), and, when clicked, takes users to a Google service related to that emotion. [ 38 ] Tom Chavez of “ Rapt ”, a firm helping to determine a web site ‘s ad worth, estimated in 2007 that Google lost $ 110 million in tax income per class due to use of the button, which bypasses the advertisements found on the search results foliate. [ 39 ]

special synergistic features

Besides the chief text-based search-engine affair of Google search, it besides offers multiple agile, synergistic features. These include, but are not limited to : [ 40 ] [ 41 ] [ 42 ]

  • Calculator
  • Time zone, currency, and unit conversions
  • Word translations
  • Flight status
  • Local film showings
  • Weather forecasts
  • Population and unemployment rates
  • Package tracking
  • Word definitions
  • Metronome
  • Roll a die
  • “Do a barrel roll” (search page spins)
  • “Askew” (results show up sideways)

“ oklahoma Google ” colloquial search

During Google ‘s developer conference, Google I/O, in May 2013, the party announced that users on Google Chrome and Chrome OS would be able to have the browser initiate an audio-based research by saying “ all right Google ”, with no button presses required. After having the answer presented, users can follow up with extra, contextual questions ; an example include initially asking “ very well Google, will it be sunny in Santa Cruz this weekend ? “, hearing a talk answer, and reply with “ how far is it from here ? ” [ 43 ] [ 44 ] An update to the Chrome browser with voice-search functionality rolled out a workweek later, though it required a button press on a microphone icon quite than “ oklahoma Google ” articulation activation. [ 45 ] Google released a browser propagation for the Chrome browser, named with a “ beta “ tag for unfinished development, shortly thereafter. [ 46 ] In May 2014, the caller officially added “ oklahoma Google ” into the browser itself ; [ 47 ] they removed it in October 2015, citing low use, though the microphone icon for activation remained available. [ 48 ] In May 2016, 20 % of search queries on mobile devices were done through part. [ 49 ]

search results

page layout

At the top of the research page, the approximate result count and the response time two digits behind decimal fraction is noted. Of search results, page titles and URLs, dates, and a preview text snip for each result appears. Along with vane search results, sections with images, news, and videos may appear. [ 50 ] The duration of the preview textbook snipped was experimented with in 2015 and 2017. [ 51 ] [ 52 ]

Universal search

“ universal search ” was launched by Google on May 16, 2007, as an idea that merged the results from unlike kinds of search types into one. Prior to Universal search, a standard Google search would consist of links only to websites. Universal search, however, incorporates a wide diverseness of sources, including websites, news, pictures, maps, blogs, videos, and more, all shown on the lapp search results page. [ 53 ] [ 54 ] Marissa Mayer, then-vice president of the united states of search products and exploiter feel, described the goal of Universal search as “ we ‘re attempting to break down the walls that traditionally separated our respective search properties and integrate the huge amounts of information available into one childlike determine of research results. [ 55 ] In June 2017, Google expanded its search results to cover available caper listings. The data is aggregated from diverse major problem boards and collected by analyzing ship’s company homepages. initially merely available in English, the sport aims to simplify finding jobs suitable for each exploiter. [ 56 ] [ 57 ]

rich snippets

In May 2009, Google announced that they would be parsing web site microformats to populate search solution pages with “ rich people snippets ”. such snippets include extra details about results, such as displaying reviews for restaurants and social media accounts for individuals. [ 58 ] In May 2016, Google expanded on the “ rich snippets ” format to offer “ rich cards ”, which, similarly to snippets, display more information about results, but shows them at the exceed of the mobile web site in a swipeable carousel-like format. [ 59 ] primitively limited to movie and recipe websites in the United States merely, the feature expanded to all countries globally in 2017. [ 60 ] now the web publishers can have greater control over the deep snippets. Preview settings from these meta tag will become effective in mid-to-late October 2019 and may take about a week for the ball-shaped rollout to complete. [ 61 ]

Knowledge Graph

The Knowledge Graph is a cognition base used by Google to enhance its search engine ‘s results with data gathered from a variety show of sources. [ 62 ] This data is presented to users in a box to the right of search results. [ 63 ] Knowledge Graph boxes were added to Google ‘s search locomotive in May 2012, [ 62 ] starting in the United States, with external expansion by the end of the year. [ 64 ] The data covered by the Knowledge Graph grew importantly after launch, tripling its master size within seven months, [ 65 ] and being able to answer “ approximately one-third ” of the 100 billion monthly searches Google processed in May 2016. [ 66 ] The information is frequently used as a address answer in Google Assistant [ 67 ] and Google Home searches. [ 68 ] The Knowledge Graph has been criticized for providing answers without source attribution. [ 66 ] Google Search has been accused of using a alleged zero-click search to prevent a large region of the traffic leaving its page to third-party publishers. As a leave, 71 % of searches end on the Google search page. In case of one specific query out of 890,000 searches on Google, alone 30,000 resulted in the user clicking on the results website. [ 69 ]

personal check

In May 2017, Google enabled a new “ Personal ” yellow journalism in Google Search, letting users search for content in their Google accounts ‘ versatile services, including e-mail messages from Gmail and photos from Google Photos. [ 70 ] [ 71 ]

Google Discover

Google Discover, previously known as Google Feed, is a individualized current of articles, videos, and other news-related capacity. The feed contains a “ mix of cards ” which show topics of interest based on users ‘ interactions with Google, or topics they choose to follow directly. [ 72 ] Cards include, “ links to newsworthiness stories, YouTube videos, sports scores, recipes, and early content based on what [ Google ] determined you ‘re most likely to be matter to in at that particular moment. ” [ 72 ] Users can besides tell Google they ‘re not interested in certain topics to avoid seeing future updates. Google Discover launched in December 2016 [ 73 ] and received a major update in July 2017. [ 74 ] Another major update was released in September 2018, which renamed the app from Google Feed to Google Discover, updated the invention, and adding more features. [ 75 ] unwrap can be found on a check in the Google app and by swiping left on the home blind of certain Android devices. As of 2019, Google will not allow political campaigns worldwide to target their ad to people to make them vote. [ 76 ]

safe search

Ranking of results


Google ‘s ascend was largely due to a patented algorithm called PageRank which helps rank vane pages that match a given research string. [ 77 ] When Google was a Stanford inquiry project, it was nicknamed BackRub because the engineering checks backlinks to determine a locate ‘s importance. early keyword-based methods to rank search results, used by many search engines that were once more popular than Google, would check how often the search terms occurred in a page, or how strongly associated the search terms were within each resulting page. The PageRank algorithm rather analyzes human-generated links assuming that web pages linked from many crucial pages are besides crucial. The algorithm computes a recursive score for pages, based on the leaden sum of other pages linking to them. PageRank is thought to correlate well with human concepts of importance. In accession to PageRank, Google, over the years, has added many other mysterious criteria for determining the rank of resulting pages. This is reported to comprise over 250 different indicators, [ 78 ] [ 79 ] the specifics of which are kept unavowed to avoid difficulties created by scammers and help Google maintain an edge over its competitors globally. PageRank was influenced by a like page-ranking and site-scoring algorithm earlier used for RankDex, developed by Robin Li in 1996. Larry Page ‘s patent for PageRank filed in 1998 includes a citation to Li ‘s earlier patent. Li subsequently went on to create the taiwanese search locomotive Baidu in 2000. [ 80 ] [ 81 ] [ 82 ] In a likely hint of Google ‘s future direction of their Search algorithm, Google ‘s then head executive Eric Schmidt, said in a 2007 interview with the Financial Times : “ The finish is to enable Google users to be able to ask the question such as ‘What shall I do tomorrow ? ‘ and ‘What problem shall I take ? ‘ ”. [ 83 ] Schmidt reaffirmed this during a 2010 consultation with The Wall Street Journal : “ I actually think most people do n’t want Google to answer their questions, they want Google to tell them what they should be doing adjacent. ” [ 84 ] In 2013 the european Commission found that Google Search favored Google ‘s own products, rather of the best result for consumers ‘ needs. [ 85 ] In February 2015 Google announced a major change to its mobile research algorithm which would favor mobile friendly over early websites. closely 60 % of Google searches come from fluid phones. Google says it wants users to have access to premium timbre websites. Those websites which lack a mobile-friendly interface would be ranked lower and it is expected that this update will cause a reorganization of ranks. Businesses who fail to update their websites accordingly could see a dip in their even websites traffic. [ 86 ]

Google optimization

Because Google is the most popular search engine, many webmasters attempt to influence their web site ‘s Google rankings. An industry of consultants has arisen to help websites increase their rankings on Google and early research engines. This field, called search engine optimization, attempts to discern patterns in search locomotive listings, and then develop a methodology for improving rankings to draw more searchers to their clients ‘ sites. Search engine optimization encompasses both “ on page ” factors ( like body copy, style elements, H1 heading elements and effigy elevation property values ) and Off Page Optimization factors ( like anchor textbook and PageRank ). The general mind is to affect Google ‘s relevance algorithm by incorporating the keywords being targeted in assorted places “ on page ”, in particular the entitle element and the soundbox replicate ( note : the higher up in the foliate, presumably the better its keyword bulge and frankincense the ranking ). Too many occurrences of the keyword, however, cause the page to look suspect to Google ‘s spam check algorithm. Google has published guidelines for web site owners who would like to raise their rankings when using legitimate optimization consultants. [ 87 ] It has been hypothesized, and, allegedly, is the opinion of the owner of one business about which there have been numerous complaints, that minus publicity, for example, numerous consumer complaints, may serve american samoa well to elevate page crying on Google Search as favorable comments. [ 88 ] The finical problem addressed in The New York Times article, which involved DecorMyEyes, was addressed shortly thereafter by an undisclosed sterilize in the Google algorithm. According to Google, it was not the frequently published consumer complaints about DecorMyEyes which resulted in the high ranking but mentions on news websites of events which affected the tauten such as legal actions against it. Google Search Console helps to check for websites that use extra or copyright content. [ 89 ]

“ Hummingbird ” search algorithm upgrade

In 2013, Google importantly upgraded its search algorithm with “ Hummingbird ”. Its name was derived from the accelerate and accuracy of the hummingbird. [ 90 ] The change was announced on September 26, 2013, having already been in use for a month. [ 91 ] “ Hummingbird ” places greater emphasis on lifelike linguistic process queries, considering context and mean over individual keywords. [ 90 ] It besides looks deeper at content on individual pages of a web site, with improved ability to lead users immediately to the most appropriate page preferably than precisely a web site ‘s home page. [ 92 ] The upgrade marked the most significant transfer to Google search in years, with more “ human ” search interactions [ 93 ] and a much heavier focus on conversation and mean. [ 90 ] Thus, web developers and writers were encouraged to optimize their sites with natural writing rather than forced keywords, and make effective use of technical world wide web development for on-site seafaring. [ 94 ]

Google Doodles

On certain occasions, the logo on Google ‘s web page will change to a particular interpretation, known as a “ Google Doodle ”. This is a movie, drawing, vivification, or interactional game that includes the logo. It is normally done for a special consequence or day although not all of them are well known. [ 95 ] Clicking on the Doodle links to a string of Google search results about the topic. The beginning was a reference book to the Burning Man Festival in 1998, [ 96 ] [ 97 ] and others have been produced for the birthdays of luminary people like Albert Einstein, historical events like the interlocking Lego block ‘s fiftieth anniversary and holidays like Valentine ‘s Day. [ 98 ] Some Google Doodles have interactivity beyond a simpleton search, such as the celebrated “ Google Pac-Man ” translation that appeared on May 21, 2010 .

Smartphone apps

Google offers a “ Google Search ” mobile app for Android and io devices. [ 99 ] The mobile apps entirely feature Google Discover and a “ Collections ” feature, in which the drug user can save for subsequently perusal any type of search resultant role like images, bookmarks or map locations into groups. [ 100 ] Android devices were introduced to a preview of the tip, perceived equally related to Google nowadays, in December 2016, [ 101 ] while it was made official on both Android and io in July 2017. [ 102 ] [ 103 ]

In April 2016, Google updated its Search app on Android to feature “ Trends ” ; search queries gaining popularity appeared in the autocomplete box along with normal question autocompletion. [ 104 ] The update received meaning recoil, due to encouraging search queries unrelated to users ‘ interests or intentions, prompting the company to issue an update with an opt-out option. [ 105 ] In September 2017, the Google Search app on io was updated to feature the like functionality. [ 106 ] In December 2017, Google released “ Google Go ”, an app designed to enable practice of Google Search on physically smaller and lower-spec devices in multiple languages. A Google web log position about designing “ India-first ” products and features explains that it is “ bespoke for the millions of people in [ India and Indonesia ] coming on-line for the beginning clock ”. [ 107 ]

Discontinued features

Translate foreign pages

Until May 2013, Google Search had offered a sport to translate search queries into early languages. A Google spokesperson told Search Engine Land that “ Removing features is always bad, but we do think identical unvoiced about each decision and its implications for our users. unfortunately, this feature never saw much pick up ”. [ 108 ]

Instant search

instantaneous search was announced in September 2010 as a feature that displayed suggested results while the exploiter typed in their search question, initially only in blue-ribbon countries or to registered users. [ 109 ] The primary advantage of the new arrangement was its ability to save time, with Marissa Mayer, then-vice president of the united states of research products and exploiter experience, proclaiming that the feature would save 2–5 seconds per search, elaborating that “ That may not seem like a batch at beginning, but it adds up. With Google Instant, we estimate that we ‘ll save our users 11 hours with each passing irregular ! ” [ 110 ] Matt Van Wagner of Search Engine Land wrote that “ Personally, I kind of like Google Instant and I think it represents a natural evolution in the way search work ”, and besides praised Google ‘s efforts in public relations, writing that “ With just a bid league and a few well-placed interviews, Google has parlayed this relatively minor focal ratio improvement into an attention-grabbing front-page news narrative ”. [ 111 ] The upgrade besides became luminary for the company switching Google Search ‘s underlying engineering from HTML to AJAX. [ 112 ] Instant Search could be disabled via Google ‘s “ preferences ” menu for those who did n’t want its functionality. [ 113 ] The publication 2600: The Hacker Quarterly compiled a number of words that Google Instant did not show suggest results for, with a Google spokesperson giving the follow statement to Mashable : [ 114 ]

There are several reasons you may not be seeing search queries for a finical subject. Among other things, we apply a specialize set of removal policies for pornography, violence, and hate manner of speaking. It ‘s important to note that removing queries from Autocomplete is a hard trouble, and not a simple as blacklisting finical terms and phrases. In search, we get more than one billion searches each day. Because of this, we take an algorithmic approach to removals, and equitable like our search algorithm, these are progressive. We will continue to work to improve our approach to removals in Autocomplete, and are listening carefully to feedback from our users. Our algorithms look not entirely at specific words, but compound queries based on those words, and across all languages. therefore, for example, if there ‘s a bad parole in russian, we may remove a compound son including the transliteration of the russian give voice into English. We besides look at the search results themselves for given queries. then, for example, if the results for a particular question seem pornographic, our algorithm may remove that question from Autocomplete, even if the question itself would n’t otherwise violate our policies. This system is neither perfect nor instantaneous, and we will continue to work to make it better .

PC Magazine discussed the inconsistency in how some forms of the lapp topic are allowed ; for example, “ lesbian ” was blocked, while “ homosexual ” was not, and “ cocaine ” was blocked, while “ snap ” and “ heroin ” were not. The report promote stated that apparently normal words were besides blocked due to pornographic insinuation, most notably “ scat ”, likely ascribable to having two completely classify contextual meanings, one for music and one for a sexual practice. [ 115 ] On July 26, 2017, Google removed Instant results, due to a growing number of searches on mobile devices, where interaction with search, a well as screen sizes, differ importantly from a computer. [ 116 ] [ 117 ]

Instant previews

“ moment preview ” allowed previewing screenshots of search results ‘ web pages without having to open them. The feature of speech was introduced in November 2010 to the desktop web site and removed in April 2013 citing first gear usage. [ 118 ] [ 119 ]

Dedicated encrypted search page

versatile search engines leave encrypted Web search facilities. In May 2010 Google rolled out SSL-encrypted web search. [ 120 ] The code search was accessed at [ 121 ] however, the web research is encrypted via Transport Layer Security ( TLS ) by nonpayment nowadays, therefore every search request should be mechanically encrypted if TLS is supported by the vane browser. [ 122 ] On its support web site, Google announced that the address would be turned off April 30, 2018, stating that all Google products and most new browsers use HTTPS connections as the argue for the discontinuance. [ 123 ]

real-time search

Google Real-Time Search was a feature of speech of Google Search in which research results besides sometimes included real-time data from sources such as Twitter, Facebook, blogs, and news websites. [ 124 ] The feature was introduced on December 7, 2009 [ 125 ] and went offline on July 2, 2011, after the deal with Twitter expired. [ 126 ] real-time Search included Facebook condition updates beginning on February 24, 2010. [ 127 ] A feature exchangeable to real-time Search was already available on Microsoft ‘s Bing search locomotive, which showed results from Twitter and Facebook. [ 128 ] The interface for the engine showed a live, descending “ river ” of posts in the independent region ( which could be paused or resumed ), while a barroom chart measured of the frequency of posts containing a certain search term or hashtag was located on the right hand corner of the page above a list of most frequently reposted posts and outgoing links. Hashtag search links were besides supported, as were “ promoted ” tweets hosted by Twitter ( located persistently on top of the river ) and thumbnails of retweeted image or video recording links. In January 2011, geolocation links of posts were made available aboard results in real-time Search. In addition, posts containing syndicated or attached cut links were made searchable by the link: question option. In July 2011 Real-Time Search became inaccessible, with the real-time link in the Google sidebar disappear and a custom 404 error page generated by Google returned at its former URL. Google originally suggested that the interruption was irregular and related to the launch of Google+ ; [ 129 ] they subsequently announced that it was due to the death of a commercial placement with Twitter to provide access to tweets. [ 130 ]


Searches made by search engines, including Google, leave traces. This raises concerns about privacy. In principle, if details of a exploiter ‘s searches are found, those with access to the information—principally country agencies creditworthy for law enforcement and alike matters—can make deductions about the drug user ‘s activities. This has been used for the detection and pursuance of lawbreakers ; for example a murderer was found and convicted after searching for terms such as “ tips with killing with a baseball bat ”. [ 131 ] A search may leave traces both on a computer used to make the search, and in records kept by the search supplier. When using a search engine through a browser program on a calculator, search terms and other information may be stored on the computer by default, unless the browser is set not to do this, or they are erased. Saved terms may be discovered on forensic psychoanalysis of the calculator. An Internet service supplier ( ISP ) or search engine supplier ( e.g. Google ) may store records which relate search terms to an IP address and a time. [ 132 ] Whether such logs are kept, and access to them by law enforcement agencies, is discipline to legislation in different jurisdictions and working practices ; the jurisprudence may mandate, forbid, or say nothing about log of diverse types of information. Some search engines, located in jurisdictions where it is not illegal, make a sport of not storing drug user search information. [ 133 ] The keywords suggested by the Autocomplete feature display a population of users ‘ inquiry which is made possible by an identity management system. Volumes of personal data are collected via Eddystone web and proximity beacons. [ citation needed ] Google has been criticized for placing long-run cookies on users ‘ machines to store these preferences, a tactic which besides enables them to track a user ‘s search terms and retain the data for more than a year. [ 134 ] Since 2012, Google Inc. has globally introduced code connections for most of its clients, to bypass governative blockings of the commercial and IT services. [ 135 ]


intersection Sans, Google ‘s font since 2015 In late June 2011, Google introduced a newly search to the Google home page in ordain to boost the manipulation of the Google+ social tools. [ 136 ] One of the major changes was replacing the classical navigation barricade with a black one. Google ‘s digital creative conductor Chris Wiggins explains : “ We ‘re working on a plan to bring you a new and better Google know, and over the next few months, you ‘ll continue to see more updates to our count and palpate. ” [ 137 ] The fresh navigation bar has been negatively received by a outspoken minority. [ 138 ] In November 2013, Google started testing yellow labels for advertisements displayed in search results, to improve drug user experience. The new labels, highlighted in scandalmongering color, and aligned to the left of each sponsored link avail users differentiate between organic and sponsor results. [ 139 ] On December 15, 2016, Google rolled out a new background search interface that mimics their modular mobile drug user interface. The mobile design consists of a tabular invention that highlights search features in boxes. and works by imitating the desktop Knowledge Graph real estate of the realm, which appears in the right fulminate of the search engine consequence page, these featured elements frequently feature Twitter carousels, People besides Search For, and Top Stories ( upright and horizontal blueprint ) modules. The local anesthetic Pack and Answer Box were two of the original features of the Google SERP that were primarily showcased in this manner, but this newly layout creates a previously unobserved floor of design consistency for Google results. [ 140 ]

search products

In addition to its tool for searching web pages, Google besides provides services for searching images, Usenet newsgroups, news program websites, videos ( Google Videos ), searching by vicinity, maps, and items for sale on-line. Google Videos allows searching the World Wide Web for video clips. [ 141 ] The serve evolved from Google Video, Google ‘s discontinued video hosting service that besides allowed to search the world wide web for television clips. [ 141 ] In 2012, Google has indexed over 30 trillion web pages, and received 100 billion queries per calendar month. [ 142 ] It besides caches much of the message that it indexes. Google operates early tools and services including Google News, Google Shopping, Google Maps, Google Custom Search, Google Earth, Google Docs, Picasa ( discontinued ), Panoramio ( discontinued ), YouTube, Google Translate, Google Blog Search and Google Desktop Search ( discontinued [ 143 ] ). There are besides products available from Google that are not directly search-related. Gmail, for exercise, is a webmail application, but inactive includes search features ; Google Browser Sync does not offer any research facilities, although it aims to organize your shop time .

Energy pulmonary tuberculosis

In 2009, Google claimed that a search question requires altogether about 1 kJ or 0.0003 kW·h, [ 144 ] which is enough to raise the temperature of one liter of water by 0.24 °C. According to k search engine Ecosia, the industry standard for search engines is estimated to be about 0.2 grams of CO2 discharge per search. [ 145 ] Google ‘s 40,000 searches per second understand to 8 kg CO2 per second gear or over 252 million kilogram of CO2 per year. [ 146 ]


Complaints about indexing

In 2003, The New York Times complained about Google ‘s index, claiming that Google ‘s hoard of content on its site infringed its copyright for the subject. [ 147 ] In both Field v. Google and Parker v. Google, the United States District Court of Nevada ruled in favor of Google. [ 148 ] [ 149 ]

January 2009 malware tease

A screenshot of the error of January 31, 2009 Google flags search results with the message “ This locate may harm your computer ” if the site is known to install malicious software in the backdrop or differently surreptitiously. For approximately 40 minutes on January 31, 2009, all search results were mistakenly classified as malware and could therefore not be clicked ; alternatively a warn message was displayed and the drug user was required to enter the requested URL manually. The microbe was caused by human error. [ 150 ] [ 151 ] [ 152 ] [ 153 ] The URL of “ / ” ( which expands to all URLs ) was mistakenly added to the malware patterns file. [ 151 ] [ 152 ]

possible misapply of search results

In 2007, a group of researchers observed a tendency for users to rely on Google Search entirely for finding data, writing that “ With the Google interface the drug user gets the impression that the search results imply a kind of sum. … In fact, one only sees a little part of what one could see if one besides integrates early research tools. ” [ 154 ] In 2011, Google Search question results have been shown by Internet activist Eli Pariser to be tailored to users, effectively isolating users in what he defined as a trickle bubble. Pariser holds algorithms used in research engines such as Google Search responsible for catering “ a personal ecosystem of information ”. [ 155 ] Although contrasting views have mitigated the potential threat of “ informational dystopia ” and questioned the scientific nature of Pariser ‘s claims, [ 156 ] filter bubbles have been mentioned to account for the surprise results of the U.S. presidential election in 2016 aboard talk through one’s hat news and resound chambers, suggesting that Facebook and Google have designed personalized on-line realities in which “ we only see and hear what we like ”. [ 157 ]

FTC fines

In 2012, the US Federal Trade Commission fined Google US $ 22.5 million for violating their agreement not to violate the privacy of users of Apple ‘s Safari vane browser. [ 158 ] The FTC was besides continuing to investigate if Google ‘s prefer of their own services in their research results violated antimonopoly regulations. [ 159 ]

Big data and human bias

Google research locomotive robots are programmed to use algorithms that understand and predict homo behavior. The script, Race After Technology: Abolitionist Tools for the New Jim Code [ 160 ] by Ruha Benjamin talks about human bias as a demeanor that the Google search engine can recognize. In 2016, some users google searched “ three Black teenagers ” and images of criminal mugshots of young african american english teenagers came up. then, the users searched “ three White teenagers ” and were presented with photos of smiling, felicitous teenagers. They besides searched for “ three asian teenagers ”, and very revealing photos of asian girls and women appeared. Benjamin concluded that these results reflect human prejudice and views on different heathen groups. A group of analysts explained the concept of a racist calculator program : “ The idea here is that computers, unlike people, ca n’t be racist but we ‘re increasingly learning that they do in fact take after their makers … Some experts believe that this trouble might stem from the hidden biases in the massive piles of data that the algorithm process as they learn to recognize patterns … reproducing our worst values ”. [ 160 ]


As people talk about “ googling ” rather than searching, the company has taken some steps to defend its trademark, in an effort to prevent it from becoming a generic trademark. [ 161 ] [ 162 ] This has led to lawsuits, threats of lawsuits, and the use of euphemisms, such as calling Google Search a famous web search engine. [ 163 ]

See besides


far interpretation

  • Google Hacks from O’Reilly is a book containing tips about using Google effectively. Now in its third edition (2006). ISBN 0-596-52706-3.
  • Google: The Missing Manual by Sarah Milstein and Rael Dornfest (O’Reilly, 2004). ISBN 0-596-00613-6
  • How to Do Everything with Google by Fritz Schneider, Nancy Blachman, and Eric Fredricksen (McGraw-Hill Osborne Media, 2003). ISBN 0-07-223174-2
  • Google Power by Chris Sherman (McGraw-Hill Osborne Media, 2005). ISBN 0-07-225787-3
  • Barroso, Luiz Andre; Dean, Jeffrey; Hölzle, Urs (2003). “Web Search for a Planet: The Google Cluster Architecture”. IEEE Micro. 23 (2): 22–28. doi:10.1109/MM.2003.1196112. S2CID 15886858.

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