Reference List – APA Citation Style (7th Edition) – Subject Guides at University of Alberta Libraries

The guideline on this page will assistant have you begin. consult the publication manual of the american psychological affiliation, seventh version ( in print : pe 1475 A52 2020 ), the APA style web site, and the rest of this lead for more information and exemplar .

  • A reference is made up of 4 elements: author, date, title and source.
  • List the sources you quoted or paraphrased in the text of the paper (with some exceptions).
  • References are arranged alphabetically by the authors’ last names.
  • Double-space all entries.
  • Use hanging indent paragraph style: after the first line of each citation, indent 0.5″ from the left margin.


  • Authors’ names are entered as follows: surname first, with initials for first and middle names, separated by commas, with an ampersand (&) before the last author’s name. 
  • The “author” may be an editor, artist, group, etc. (Spell out corporate/group authors in full – no acronyms.)
  • If a resource has no author listed, the first word of the title goes in the author position, alphabetically in the list (ignoring initial articles such as A, The, An, etc.).

( see department 9.7 to 9.12 of the APA publication manual, seventh erectile dysfunction. )


  • The publication date format depends on the type of resource:
    • books, journals, and multimedia – include the year the item was published or produced; 
    • newspapers and magazines – give the year and exact date (2008, June 5).
  • If no date is available, use (n.d.).
  • An online retrieval date is only required for sources that are likely to change, such as Twitter profiles or Facebook pages.

( meet segment 9.13 to 9.17 of the APA publication manual, seventh erectile dysfunction. )


  • Capitalize only the first word in the title, proper nouns, and the first word after a colon or semicolon (sentence case); italicize the title.
  • For periodical / journal titles, capitalize all major words (title case); italicize the title and volume number.
  • For sources in other formats, include the description in square brackets. For example, Sophie’s choice [Film].

( learn section 9.18 to 9.22 of the APA publication manual of arms, seventh erectile dysfunction. )

  • Electronic sources require a DOI or a URL. (For works in a library database with no DOI, only include the URL if specified by your instructor.)
  • Give the full names of book publishers, omitting endings such as “Co.” or “Inc.” Include “Books” or “Press” if part of the name. The publisher location is not required.
  • Use the abbreviation “p.” or “pp.” before page numbers for book chapters. For journal article page numbers, do not use “p.” or “pp.”

( see section 9.23 to 9.37 of the APA publication manual, seventh erectile dysfunction. )

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