- A reference is made up of 4 elements: author, date, title and source.
- List the sources you quoted or paraphrased in the text of the paper (with some exceptions).
- References are arranged alphabetically by the authors’ last names.
- Double-space all entries.
- Use hanging indent paragraph style: after the first line of each citation, indent 0.5″ from the left margin.
- Authors’ names are entered as follows: surname first, with initials for first and middle names, separated by commas, with an ampersand (&) before the last author’s name.
- The “author” may be an editor, artist, group, etc. (Spell out corporate/group authors in full – no acronyms.)
- If a resource has no author listed, the first word of the title goes in the author position, alphabetically in the list (ignoring initial articles such as A, The, An, etc.).
( see department 9.7 to 9.12 of the APA publication manual, seventh erectile dysfunction. )
- The publication date format depends on the type of resource:
- books, journals, and multimedia – include the year the item was published or produced;
- newspapers and magazines – give the year and exact date (2008, June 5).
- If no date is available, use (n.d.).
- An online retrieval date is only required for sources that are likely to change, such as Twitter profiles or Facebook pages.
( meet segment 9.13 to 9.17 of the APA publication manual, seventh erectile dysfunction. )
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- Capitalize only the first word in the title, proper nouns, and the first word after a colon or semicolon (sentence case); italicize the title.
- For periodical / journal titles, capitalize all major words (title case); italicize the title and volume number.
- For sources in other formats, include the description in square brackets. For example, Sophie’s choice [Film].
( learn section 9.18 to 9.22 of the APA publication manual of arms, seventh erectile dysfunction. )
- Electronic sources require a DOI or a URL. (For works in a library database with no DOI, only include the URL if specified by your instructor.)
- Give the full names of book publishers, omitting endings such as “Co.” or “Inc.” Include “Books” or “Press” if part of the name. The publisher location is not required.
- Use the abbreviation “p.” or “pp.” before page numbers for book chapters. For journal article page numbers, do not use “p.” or “pp.”
( see section 9.23 to 9.37 of the APA publication manual, seventh erectile dysfunction. )