Parenthetical Citations – MLA Citation Style Guide – SOM Library at University of South Carolina School of Medicine

Include a parenthetical expression citation when you refer to, summarize, paraphrase, or quote from another source. For every in-text citation in your paper, there must be a corresponding submission in your Works Cited list .
MLA parenthetic citation manner uses the author ‘s last diagnose and a page count ; for exercise : ( Field 122 ) .

How to Cite a Direct Quote ( 92-105 )

When you incorporate a aim citation into a sentence, you must cite the source. Fit quotations within your sentences, making sure the sentences are grammatically discipline :
Examples :

Gibaldi indicates, “ Quotations are effective in inquiry papers when used selectively ” ( 109 ) .

Remember that “ [ q ] uotations are effective in research papers when used selectively ” ( Gibaldi 109 ) .

If the citation will run to more than 4 lines in your paper, you must use a obstruct format in which the quotation is indented 1 column inch from the left field allowance, double spaced with no quotation marks .

How to Cite after Paraphrasing
even if you put information in your own words by summarizing or paraphrasing, you must cite the original generator or research worker equally well as the page or paragraph issue ( randomness ). For exemplar, a paraphrase of Gibaldi ’ s earlier quotation might be identified as follows :
Within the inquiry paper, quotations will have more impact when used judiciously ( Gibaldi 109 ) .

How to Cite Information When You Have Not Seen the Original Source ( 226 )

sometimes an generator writes about inquiry that person else has done, but you are unable to track down the original research report. In this case, because you did not read the original report card, you will include lone the informant you did consult in the Works Cited list. The abbreviation “ qtd. ” in the parenthetic reference indicates you have not read the original research .
Fong ’ sulfur 1987 survey found that older students ’ memory can be deoxyadenosine monophosphate adept as that of young people, but this depends on how memory is tested ( qtd. in Bertram 124 ). [ Do not include Fong ( 1987 ) in Works Cited ; do include Bertram. ]

How to Cite Information If No Page Numbers Are Available ( 220-222 )
If a resource contains no page numbers, as can be the event with electronic sources, then you can not include a page number in the parentheses. however, if the reference indicates paragraph numbers, use the abbreviation “ par. ” or “ pars. ” and the relevant numbers in the parentheses .
One web site describes these specific dragons ( King ). A solution was suggested in 1996 ( Pangee, pars. 12-18 ) .

How to Cite Two or More Works by the Same Author or Authors ( 225 )
When citing one of two or more works by the lapp generator ( s ), put a comma after the author ’ second last name and add the entitle of the make ( if brief ) or a bowdlerize interpretation of the deed and the relevant page count .

How to Cite if the Author’s Name is Unavailable ( 223-224 )
Use the entitle of the article or ledger or Web informant, including the appropriate capitalization and quotation marks/italics format .
model : ( “ Asthma Rates Increasing ” 29 ) .

How to Cite when you are Altering a Direct Quote
When you need to leave out part of a quotation to make it fit grammatically or because it contains irrelevant/unnecessary information, insert ellipses points, or three spaced periods (. .. ). ( 97-101 ) .
If you must add or slightly change words within a quotation for reasons of grammar or clarity, surround the change with feather brackets ( 101 ) .

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