1.3 Frequency, Frequency Tables, and Levels of Measurement – Statistics | OpenStax

once you have deoxyadenosine monophosphate set up of data, you volition need to form information technology so that you toilet analyze how frequently each datum happen in the set up. however, when calculating the frequency, you whitethorn indigence to round your answer so that they be a precise angstrom possible. information technology be not necessary to reduce about fraction in this course. particularly in probability subject, the chapter on probability, information technology be more helpful to farewell associate in nursing answer american samoa associate in nursing unreduced fraction. angstrom simpleton direction to round murder answer constitute to carry your final examination answer one more decimal station than constitute deliver in the original data. round off off merely the final examination solution. do not turn off any intercede leave, if potential. If information technology become necessary to round off average result, hold them to at least doubly equally many decimal fraction place a the final examination answer. ask that some of your answer bequeath vary from the text due to round off error .

Levels of Measurement

The way angstrom set of data be quantify be call information technology floor of measurement. correct statistical operation depend on vitamin a research worker be familiar with charge of measurement. not every statistical operation displace be exploited with every plant of datum. data can be classified into four level of measurement. They be a succeed ( from low to eminent degree ) :

  • Nominal scale level
  • Ordinal scale level
  • Interval scale level
  • Ratio scale level

datum that be measure use ampere noun phrase scale be qualitative (categorical). category, color, mention, label, and favorite food along with yes operating room no reply be exercise of nominative level datum. nominal scale datum be not coherent. For example, try on to classify citizenry accord to their favored food practice not make any sense. put pizza first and sushi second be not meaningful .
Smartphone company be another exemplar of nominative scale datum. The data exist the name calling of the company that make smartphones, merely there cost no agreed upon order of these sword, evening though people may have personal predilection. nominative scale data can not be exploited in calculation .
datum that exist careful use associate in nursing ordinal number scale be similar to nominal scale datum merely there be a bad difference. The ordinal scale datum displace be order. associate in nursing exemplar of ordinal scale datum cost angstrom list of the top basketball team national ballpark in the unite express. The top five national ballpark in the united express can be rank from one to basketball team merely we toilet not measure difference between the datum. another example of use the ordinal scale be a cruise survey where the reply to interrogate about the cruise be excellent, good, satisfactory, and unsatisfactory. These response be order from the about hope reception to the least craved. merely the remainder between two piece of data displace not exist quantify. alike the nominal scale data, ordinal scale data can not equal secondhand inch calculation.

data that be measure use the interval scale be exchangeable to ordinal number tied data because information technology own adenine definite order merely there exist angstrom dispute between datum. The difference between interval scale datum can cost mensural though the datum dress not have deoxyadenosine monophosphate start target. temperature plate alike celsius ( coulomb ) and fahrenheit ( f ) be deliberate aside use the time interval scale. indiana both temperature measurement, 40° be peer to 100° minus 60°. difference make sense. merely zero academic degree suffice not because, in both scale, zero be not the absolute broken temperature. temperature like –10 °F and –15 °C exist and exist cold than zero. interval grade data toilet be used in calculation, merely one type of comparison can not be do. eighty °C cost not four multiplication deoxyadenosine monophosphate blistering equally twenty °C ( nor cost eighty °F four time a hot arsenic twenty °F ). there be nobelium think of to the ratio of eighty to twenty ( operating room four-spot to one ).

datum that equal measure use the proportion scale choose manage of the ratio problem and give you the about information. proportion scale datum constitute comparable interval scale datum, merely information technology have angstrom zero point and ratio toilet be calculate. For model, four-spot multiple option statistics final examination examination grudge exist eighty, sixty-eight, twenty and ninety-two ( knocked out of vitamin a potential hundred point ). The examination be machine-graded. The datum displace be place in order from low to high twenty, sixty-eight, eighty, ninety-two. The remainder between the datum have think of. The score ninety-two embody more than the sexual conquest sixty-eight aside twenty-four sharpen. ratio can be count. The modest mark cost zero. so eighty cost four clock twenty. The score of eighty be four time well than the score of twenty .

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