# Interest Rate

Amount charged by a lender to a borrower for a debt

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## What is an Interest Rate?

An interest rate refers to the amount charged by a lender to a borrower for any form of debt given, broadly expressed as a percentage of the principal. The asset borrowed can be in the form of cash, large assets such as vehicle or build, or just consumer goods. In the character of larger assets, the matter to rate is normally referred to as the “ lease rate. ” concern rates are directly proportional to the amount of hazard associated with the borrower. concern is charged as recompense for the loss caused to the asset due to use. In the case of lending money, the lender could ’ ve invested the money in some other venture alternatively of giving it as a loanword. In the case of lending assets, the lender could ’ ve generate income by making use of the asset himself. frankincense, in render for these lost opportunities, interest rates are applied as compensation .
The annual sake rate refers to the rate that is applied over a period of one year. Interest rates can be applied over different periods, such as monthly, quarterly, or bi-annually. however, in most cases, interest rates are annualized .
interest rate can besides refer to the rate paid by the depository financial institution to its clients for keeping deposits in the bank .

### Fixed vs. Floating (Variable) Rate

concern rates can be fixed, where the rate remains constant throughout the term of the loanword, or aimless, where the rate is variable and can fluctuate based on a reference rate. More information regarding these two types of loan features can be found in the play along article : loan Features .

### Cost of Borrowing

The matter to expense – besides known as the cost of borrowing money – can be classified into the following two types :

#### #1 Simple Interest

This type of interest is calculated on the original or chief total of loanword. The formula for calculating elementary sake is : For example, if the dim-witted matter to pace is 5 % on a loanword of \$ 1,000 for a duration of 4 years, the total bare sake will come out to be : 5 % x \$ 1,000 x 4 = \$ 200 .

#### #2 Compound Interest

compound interest is calculated not good on the footing of the principal sum but besides on the roll up interest of former periods. This is the reason why it is besides called “ interest on interest. ” The convention for compound interest is as follows : Where :

• P = Principal amount
• i = Annual interest rate
• n = Number of compounding periods for a year

Unlike childlike matter to, the compound interest amount will not be the same for all years because it takes into consideration the accrued interest of former periods vitamin a well .

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### Real and Nominal Interest Rates

A nominal interest rate is one with no adjustments made for ostentation. In other words, regardless of the rate of inflation in the economy, the interest received, for case, on a deposit, will be the same even after a number of years .
The real interest rate takes the inflation rate into bill. The refund of star plus the interest is measured on the basis of actual terms compared against the buying ability of the come at the time it was borrowed, lent, invested, or deposited .
It ’ south significant to factor in the effects of inflation on purchasing power because that ’ s the only way to know if you ’ re in truth earning a return from the interest being paid. For case, if you deposit money with a bank and earn a nominative 2 % annual sake – if the inflation rate is 4 %, then in terms of purchasing power, the money you have on down payment is actually losing 2 % of its value every year .
The actual pace of rejoinder on an interest-bearing account is the nominal interest rate MINUS the rate of inflation. The submit interest rate is just the “ nominal ” rate, meaning “ in name only ” – i, not the real rate being earned .

### Factors Affecting Interest Rates

#### 1. Forces of demand and supply

interest rates are influenced by the demand for, and supply of, accredit in an economy. An addition in demand for credit finally leads to a rebel in interest rates, or the price of borrowing. conversely, a surface in the issue of credit leads to a decay in interest rates. The recognition add increases when the sum amount of money that ’ s borrowed goes up .
For exercise, when money is deposited in banks, it is in change by reversal used by banks for investment activities or to lend it elsewhere. As banks lend more money, there is more credit available, and thus borrowing increases. When this occurs, the cost of borrowing decreases ( due to normal supply and demand economics ).

#### 2. Inflation

The higher the inflation rate, the higher sake rates rise. That is because interest earned on money loaned must compensate for ostentation. As compensation for a decline in the purchasing office of money that they will be repaid in the future, lenders charge higher interest rates .

#### 3. Government

In some cases, the government ’ s monetary policy influences the come of concern rates. besides, when the politics buys more securities, banks are injected with more money to be used for lending, and frankincense interest rates decrease. When the politics sells these securities, money from the banks gets drained, giving banks less money for lending purposes and leading to a resurrect in interest rates .