Pilot certification in the United States – Wikipedia

fender authentication
Front side of an aviator security issued by the FAA . Back side of an aviator certificate issued by the FAA. Pilot certification in the United States is typically required for an individual to act as a pilot burner -in-command of an aircraft. It is regulated by the Federal Aviation Administration ( FAA ), a branch of the U.S. Department of Transportation ( USDOT ). A original may be certified under 14 Code of Federal Regulations ( CFR ) Part 61 or 14 CFR Part 141 ( if a student at an approve share 141 school ). Pilots may besides be certified under 14 CFR Part 107 for commercial drone operations.

An FAA-issued pilot certificate is testify that an person is punctually authorized to exercise navigation privileges. The pilot certificate is one of several kinds of airman certificates issued by the FAA .

general structure of authentication [edit ]

A navigate is certificated to fly aircraft at one or more named privilege levels and, at each privilege level, rated to fly aircraft of particular categories. Privilege levels of pilot burner certificates are, in order of increasing prerogative : [ 1 ]

  • Student Pilot: an individual who is learning to fly under the tutelage of a flight instructor and who is permitted to fly alone under specific, limited circumstances
  • Sport Pilot: an individual who is authorized to fly only Light-sport Aircraft
  • Remote Pilot: an individual who may fly small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) for compensation or hire
  • Recreational Pilot: an individual who may fly aircraft of up to 180 horsepower (130 kW) and 4 seats in the daytime for pleasure only
  • Private Pilot: an individual who may fly for pleasure or personal business, generally without accepting compensation
  • Commercial Pilot: an individual who may, with some restrictions, fly for compensation or hire
  • Airline Transport Pilot (often called ATP): an individual authorized to act as pilot for a scheduled airline. (First Officers that fly under 14CFR 121 are required to hold an Airline Transport Pilot Certificate as of August 1, 2013.)

Pilots can be rated in these aircraft categories : [ 1 ] [ 2 ]
Most aircraft categories are promote broken down into classes. If a category is thus divided, a pilot must hold a class rate to operate an aircraft in that class : [ 1 ]

  • The Airplane category is divided into single-engine land (ASEL), multi-engine land (AMEL), single-engine sea (ASES), and multi-engine sea (AMES) classes
  • The Rotorcraft category is divided into helicopter and gyroplane classes
  • The Lighter-than-air category is divided into airship and balloon classes
  • The Powered parachute category is divided into powered parachute land and powered parachute sea
  • The Weight-shift-control category is divided into weight-shift-control land and weight-shift-control sea

A scholar pilot burner certificate does not list class or class ratings but is rather endorsed by a flight teacher to confer privileges in specific makes and models of aircraft. A type rating is required in a specific make and exemplary of aircraft if the aircraft weighs more than 12,500 pound ( 5,700 kilogram ) at takeoff, is powered by one or more fanjet engines, or is otherwise designated as requiring a type rating. The Boeing 747, Beechcraft Super King Air 350, and the Hawker Hunter are examples of aircraft that require type ratings. [ 1 ] To legally operate under instrument flight rules ( IFR ), a pilot burner can individually add an legal document rat to a private or commercial certificate. An airline conveyance pilot implicitly holds an instrument rate, so the legal document military rank does not appear on an ATP security. The FAA issues instrument ratings individually for airplane and power face lift categories and the helicopter class ( INSTA and INSTH ). [ 1 ] Glider and airship pilots may besides operate under Instrument Flight Rules under certain circumstances. [ 3 ] An individual may hold only one pilot program certificate at one time ; that certificate may authorize multiple privilege levels distinguished by aircraft category, class or type. For case, an Airline Transport Pilot certificate holder may be permitted to exercise ATP privileges when flying multi-engine land airplanes, but merely commercial Pilot privileges when flying single-engine domain airplanes and gliders. similarly a commercial pilot burner holder with a glider fink may have only Private Pilot privileges for single-engine domain airplanes. The FAA may impose limitations on a navigate certificate if, during train or the practical test, the pilot does not demonstrate all skills necessary to exercise all privileges of a privilege level, category, class or character rat. For example, a holder of a DC-3 character rat who does not demonstrate instrument flying skills during the practical test would be assigned a limitation reading, “ DC-3 ( VFR merely ) ”. To obtain a certificate or add a rat, a pilot normally has to undergo a course of training with a certificate Flight Instructor ( CFI ) under 14CFR61 or enroll at an approved run at a 14CFR141 approve flight school. The applicant must accumulate and log specific aeronautical have, and pass a three-part examen : a knowledge test ( a computerized multiple-choice test, typically called the “ written test ” ), an oral test, and a practical test carried out by either an FAA inspector or a Designated pilot burner Examiner. Another class of authorization is a logbook endorsement from a fledge teacher that establishes that the certificate holder has received aim in specific skill areas that do not warrant a full test, such as the ability to fly a tailwheel-equipped, high-performance, building complex, or pressurized airplane. Pilot certificates do not expire, although they may be suspended or revoked by the FAA. [ 4 ] however, a navigate must maintain currency — holocene flight feel that is relevant to the flight being undertake. To remain stream, every fender has to undergo a fledge inspection with an teacher every 24 calendar months unless she or he gains a new fly certificate or fink in that clock or satisfies the flight review necessity using an alternate approved means. For most types of certificate, she or he must besides undergo a medical examen at intervals ranging from six months to five years, depending on the pilot burner ‘s old age and desired flight privileges. other currency requirements apply to the passenger car of passengers or to flight under instrument flight rules ( IFR ). A checkup security is not necessary to fly a glider, balloon, or light-sport Aircraft. An ultralight aircraft may be piloted without a fly certificate or a medical certificate. In addition to pilot certificates, the FAA issues freestanding aviator certificates for Flight Engineers, Flight Instructors, Ground Instructors, Aircraft Dispatchers, Mechanics, Repairmen, Parachute Riggers, Control Tower Operators, Flight Navigators, and Flight Attendants. [ 5 ]

navigate train [edit ]

Most pilots in the U.S. undergo flight educate as individual individuals with a flight teacher, who may be employed by a flight educate. Those who have decided on aviation as a career much begin with an undergraduate aviation-based education. Some pilots are trained in the military and are issued with civilian certificates based on their military record. Others are trained immediately by airlines. The pilot program may choose to be trained under Part 61 or Part 141 of the FARs. Part 141 requires that a certificate trajectory educate provide an approve, structured path of train, which includes a pin down number of hours of land educate ( for model, 35 hours for Private Pilot in an airplane ). Part 61 sets out a list of cognition and experience requirements, and is more desirable for students who can not commit to a structured plan, or for training from mercenary instructors. Under Part 61 pilot train, individuals can become a private pilot in about three months and a commercial fly in angstrom promptly as seven months. [ 6 ]

Knowledge tests [edit ]

Most pilot burner certificates and ratings require the applicant to pass a cognition screen, besides called the written test. The cognition screen results are valid for a time period of 2 years, and are normally a prerequisite for hardheaded tests. Resources available to prepare for the cognition test may be obtained from pilot supply stores or vendors. The exceptions where a cognition examination is not required for a practical test are for some addition ratings after the initial license, such as a power aircraft pilot adding another class denounce at the lapp license level. [ 7 ] To take cognition tests for all fender certificates and ratings, the applicant must have a sign-off from a land or flight teacher. These are normally given by an teacher who has taught a anchor school naturally, provided ground direction or reviewed the applicant ‘s self-study preparations. Certain circumstances do n’t require sign-offs for some flight teacher or airline transport fender cognition tests .

practical tests [edit ]

All pilots certificates and ratings, except sUAS, require a practical screen, normally called a check ride. For each virtual test, the FAA publishes an Airman certification Standards ( ACS ) text file ( once Practical Test Standards ( PTS ) ) that they expect the applicant to be conversant with, the flight teacher to reference, and the examiner to use to conduct the examination. A hardheaded test is administered by an FAA Inspector or an FAA Designated Pilot Examiner. The check-ride is divided into two parts : the oral examination followed by a fledge examination in the aircraft. Upon successful completion of the virtual test, the examiner issues a temp aviator certificate with the new license or denounce. To take practical tests for all pilot certificates and ratings ( except airline conveyance navigate ), the applicant must have proper logbook endorsements from their escape teacher, and meet basic eligibility requirements required for the ratings desired .

Becoming a professional fender [edit ]

In aviation, a fender ‘s level of income and have are closely related. There are multiple ways to gain the experience required for hire by a schedule air carrier. Air carriers by and large require that the pilots they hire have hours of feel far in excess of the legal minimal. effective August 1, 2013, all airline pilots must have an Airline Transport Pilot Certificate ( ATP ) or an airline Transport Pilot Certificate with restricted Privileges ( ATP-r ). An ATP allows a pilot to act as the captain or first officeholder of an airline trajectory and requires 1,500 hours of total flight time deoxyadenosine monophosphate well as other requirements ( i.e. 25 hours of night, 23 years old ), see 14CFR61.159. An ATP-r certificate allows a pilot burner to act as a first officer in a two-pilot crew if they do not meet certain requirements. For exercise, the total trajectory fourth dimension prerequisite is reduced to angstrom little as 750 hours and the age requirement is reduced to 21. see 14CFR61.160. feel is much gained using these methods :

  • Military training (because of increased retention efforts by the military services and reduced numbers of active pilots, this is no longer a major source of pilots entering civilian careers[ citation needed]),
  • Independent training followed by becoming a part- or full-time instructor.
  • A college-level aviation program, in which a bachelor’s degree (commonly in Aviation Science or a related field) is conferred upon the completion of both flight and classroom coursework. Frequently, upperclassmen are employed as flight instructors for other students.
  • Banner towing, traffic reporting, skydiver pilot, fire patrol, pipeline patrol, aerial photography, glider towing, or other “odd jobs” in aviation are fairly low-paying and require only the legal minimum experience. Reaching the regulatory 1,200 hour flight time minimum to act as pilot-in-command under Part 135 on-demand operations is a common means of gaining experience in line operations, weather flying, etc., leading to passenger airline jobs.

pilot certificates [edit ]

The FAA offers a progress of original certificates or licenses. Each license has varying experience and cognition requirements and has varying privileges and limitations .

scholar fly [edit ]

A student fender certificate is obtained through the FAA ‘s Integrated Airman Certification and Rating Application ( IACRA ) organization. [ 8 ] The scholar pilot certificate is merely want when exercising solo fledge privileges. Student pilots must besides possess a aesculapian security when conducting flights requiring checkup authentication. As of April 1, 2016 scholar pilot certificates do not expire. once a scholar has accrued sufficient training and experience, a CFI can endorse the scholar ‘s logbook to authorize specify solo flight in a specific type ( make and model ) of aircraft. extra endorsements must be logged for specific airports where a student operates solo. There is no minimum aeronautical cognition or experience necessity for the issue of a student pilot burner security. There are, however, minimum aeronautical cognition and experience requirements for student pilots to solo, including : [ 9 ] solo requirements :

  • Be at least 16 years of age (14 for glider or balloon)
  • Read, speak, write, and understand the English language.
  • Demonstrate satisfactory aeronautical knowledge on a knowledge test, including knowledge of the following areas:
    • Airspace rules and procedures for the airport where the solo flight is performed
    • Flight characteristics and operational limitations for the make and model of aircraft to be flown
  • Receive and log flight training for the maneuvers and procedures appropriate to the make and model of aircraft to be flown, including:
    • Preflight preparation
    • Taxiing or surface operations, including run-ups
    • Takeoffs and landings, including normal and cross-wind
    • Straight and level flight, and turns in both directions
    • Climbs and climbing turns
    • Airport traffic patterns, including entry and departure procedures
    • Collision avoidance, wind shear avoidance, and wake turbulence avoidance
    • Descents, with and without turns, using high and low drag configurations
    • Flight at various airspeeds from cruise to slow flight
    • Stall entries from various flight attitudes and power combinations with recovery initiated at the first indication of a stall, and recovery from a full stall
    • Emergency procedures and equipment malfunctions
    • Ground reference maneuvers
    • Approaches to a landing area with simulated engine malfunctions
    • Slips to a landing
    • Go-arounds

Limitations while flying solo :

  • May not carry passengers.
  • May not fly for hire or in furtherance of a business.
  • May not fly in other than VMC or above clouds when visual reference cannot be made to the surface.
  • May not fly contrary to limitations placed in logbook by instructor.

Sport fly [edit ]

The fun pilot program certificate was created in September 2004. The captive of the modern dominion was to lower the barriers of entry into aviation and make flying more low-cost and accessible. The new rule besides created the Light Sport Aircraft ( LSA ) category of aircraft, which are smaller, lower-powered aircraft. The sport original certificate offers limited privileges chiefly for recreational practice. It is the entirely powered aircraft certificate that does not require a medical certificate ; a valid vehicle driver ‘s license can be used as proof of checkup competence provided the prospective fender was not rejected for their last Airman Medical Certificate. Before a trainee can start the solo phase of flight train, a Student Sport Pilot Certificate must be issued by the Federal Aviation Administration ( FAA ). These may be obtained from an FAA Flight Standards District Office or FAA Designated Pilot Examiner. To qualify for the sport navigate security, an applicant must : [ 10 ]

  • Be at least 17 years of age (16 for glider or balloon)
  • Be able to read, speak, write, and understand English
  • Log at least 20 hours of flight time, of which at least
    • 15 hours must be dual instruction with a qualified flight instructor
      • 2 hours must be cross-country dual instruction
    • 5 hours must be solo flight
  • Fly one solo cross-country flight over a total distance of 75 or more nautical miles to two different destinations to a full-stop landing. At least one leg of this cross-country must be over a total distance of at least 25 nautical miles (46 km).
  • Have received 2 hours of dual instruction in the preceding 60 days, in preparation for the Practical Test
  • Pass a Knowledge (written) test
  • Pass a Practical (oral and flight) test
  • Have a valid US State drivers license or a current 3rd class or higher Airman Medical Certificate

The above requirements are for heavier-than-air powered aircraft ( airplanes ). The requirements for gliders, balloons, gyroplanes, and dirigibles vary slightly. Sport pilots are entirely eligible to fly aircraft that are either certificated specifically as light-sport aircraft ( LSA ) or were certificated prior to the LSA regulations and are within the maximum burden and operation limitations of light-sport aircraft. The restrictions placed on a Pilot exercising the privileges of a Sport original certificate are :
The Sport pilot security is besides ineligible for extra ratings ( such as an Instrument rate ), although time in light-sport aircraft can be used towards the feel requirement of other ratings on higher certificate types .

recreational pilot [edit ]

The recreational navigate certificate requires less train and offers fewer privileges than the private fender certificate. It was in the first place created for flying belittled single-engine planes for personal enjoyment ; the newer Sport Pilot certificate overlaps this need and is easier to get, but the amateur certificate allows access to larger single-engine aircraft, and teacher endorsements are available to recreational pilots that are not applicable to sport pilots, such as flying at night or cross-country. eligibility requirements :

  • Be at least 17 years old
  • Be able to read, speak, write and understand the English language
  • Pass a required knowledge test
  • Pass a required oral and practical flight test administered by a FAA designated examiner
  • Hold either a student or sport pilot certificate.[12]
  • Meet the following experience requirements:
    • 30 hours of flight time (15 hours of flight training, 3 hours of solo time, 2 hours of cross country > 25NM)[13]

Limitations and restrictions ( without extra endorsement ) :

  • May not carry more than one passenger.
  • May not fly to an airport further than 50 nmi from the departure point.
  • May not fly in Class B, C, D airspace or to any controlled airport.
  • May not fly an aircraft that has more than four seats, a tailwheel, more than one engine, or more than 180 hp.
  • May not fly aircraft falling under the definition of a complex airplane, with retractable gear, adjustable flaps and variable-pitch propeller.
  • May not fly between sunset and sunrise.
  • May not fly above 10,000 ft MSL or 2,000 ft AGL (whichever is higher)[14]
  • If pilot has logged less than 400 hours and has not acted as pilot in command within 180 days, a flight review is required prior to any flight without an instructor.

Most of the above limitations, except the one-passenger, four-seat and single-engine restrictions, can be relaxed or lifted individually through teacher endorsement. These endorsements are obtained by participating in a prescribed course of grind and/or flight education given by an FAA-certificated teacher, including a minimal number of instructor-led flight in a flat or site normally requiring the second. Common types of endorsement for recreational pilots can allow :

  • Taking off from and landing at controlled airports and flying within their Class B/C/D airspace.
  • Command of “complex airplanes” with mechanisms or flight systems including retractable gear, flaps, and variable-pitch propellers.
  • Command of “high-performance” aircraft with engine ratings in excess of 180 hp.
  • Command of pressurized aircraft at altitudes exceeding 10,000 MSL (but not above FL180).
  • Command of tailwheel aircraft (many such designs are WWII-era fighters which usually also require “complex” and “high-performance” endorsements).
  • Command of a specific make and model of aircraft, regardless of its capabilities.
    • The aircraft endorsed must still be single-engine and have four or fewer seats; a recreational pilot may be endorsed for a Mooney Bravo or even a P-51 without having general endorsements for high-performance, complex or tailwheel aircraft, but cannot be endorsed to fly a six-seat Cessna 206 or twin-engine Piper Aztec.
  • Flights beyond 50NM from the departure point, including cross-country VFR flying.
  • Night flying by VFR (an instrument rating is still required for night SVFR/IFR, and practically requires a private pilot certification)

A recreational original will typically merely get a few of these, to allow operation of an aircraft in a few exceeding situations applicable to their venue ( the class B/C/D sanction, for case, is practically required for pilots living in major cities ). Pilots requiring a large subset of these endorsements are typically well served by obtaining their private fender documentation.

private original [edit ]

The secret pilot burner certificate allows command of any aircraft ( subject to appropriate ratings ) for any non-commercial determination, and gives about inexhaustible authority to fly under ocular flight rules ( VFR ). [ 15 ] Passengers may be carried and flight in promotion of a business is permitted ; however, a secret fender may not be compensated in any way for services as a pilot, although passengers can pay a pro rata contribution of flight expenses, such as fuel or rental costs. Private pilots may besides operate charity flights, subject to certain restrictions, and may participate in like activities, such as Angel Flight, Civil Air Patrol and many others. Besides the scholar pilot program certificate, the private original certificate is the most normally issued original certificate in the United States. [ 16 ] All the requirements to obtain a secret fly security for “ airplane, single-engine, kingdom ”, or ASEL, ( which is the most common certificate ) are : [ 17 ]

  • Be at least 17 years old (16 years old for glider or balloon rating) [18]
  • Be able to read, speak, write and understand the English language
  • Obtain at least a third class medical certificate from an Aviation Medical Examiner (except for glider or balloon)
  • Pass a computerized aeronautical knowledge test
  • Accumulate and log a specified amount of training and experience, including the following:
    • If training under Part 61, Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) section 61.109, requires at least 40 hours of flight time, including 20 hours of flight with an instructor and 10 hours of solo flight (i.e., by yourself), and other requirements including cross-country flight, which include
      • Solo requirements:
        1. 5 hours of solo cross-country time
        2. One solo cross-country flight of at least 150 nmi (280 km) total distance, with full-stop landings at a minimum of three points and with one segment of the flight consisting of a straight-line distance of at least 50 nmi (93 km) between the takeoff and landing locations
        3. Three solo takeoffs and landings to a full stop at an airport with an operating control tower.
      • Night requirements:
        1. 3 hours of night flight training
        2. 10 takeoffs and 10 landings to a full stop (with each landing involving a flight in the traffic pattern) at an airport
        3. 1 cross-country flight of 100 nm total distance at night
      • 3 hours of flight training on the control and maneuvering solely by reference to instruments
      • 3 hours of flight training for cross-country flights
      • 3 hours of flight training with an authorized instructor in preparation for the practical test, which must have been performed within the preceding 2 calendar months from the month of the test
    • If training under Part 141, at least 35 hours of piloting time including 20 hours with an instructor and 10 hours of solo flight, and other requirements including cross-country and night flights
  • Pass an oral test and flight test administered by an FAA inspector, FAA-designated examiner, or authorized check instructor

commercial pilot burner [edit ]

A certificate commercial original may act as pilot-in-command of an aircraft for recompense or lease, a well as carry persons or property for recompense or lease. [ 19 ] discipline for the certificate focuses on a better understanding of aircraft systems and a higher criterion of aviation. [ 20 ] The commercial security itself does not allow a fender to fly in instrumental role meteorologic conditions. For aircraft categories where an instrument evaluation is available, commercial pilots without an instrument rat are restricted to daytime flight within 50 nautical miles ( 93 kilometer ) when carrying passengers for rent. [ 21 ] In 2018, the FAA updated the education requirements to no longer require 10 hours of discipline in a building complex airplane. [ 22 ] now, a commercial airplane fender must log 10 hours of training in either a technically advance airplane, a complex airplane, or a turbine-powered airplane. [ 23 ] The requirements are :

  • Be at least 18 years of age
  • Hold a private pilot certificate
  • Be able to read, speak, write, and understand the English language
  • Accumulate and log a specified amount of training and experience; the following are part of the airplane single-engine land class rating requirements:
    • If training under Part 61, at least 250 hours of piloting time including 20 hours of training with an instructor and 10 hours of solo flight, and other requirements including several “cross-country” flights, i.e., more than 50 nautical miles (93 km)(25 NM for helicopter rate) from the departure airport (which include Day VFR and Night VFR 100 nmi (190 km) between beginning point and destination, with a time of at least two hours; also one cross country of at least 250 nmi (460 km) to the destination, a 300 nmi (560 km) total distance, with landings at three airports) and both solo and instructor-accompanied night flights
    • If training under Part 141, at least 150 hours of training time including 55 hours with an instructor and 10 hours of solo flight, and other requirements including several cross-country, solo, and night flights
  • Pass a 100-question aeronautical knowledge written test
  • Pass an oral test and flight test administered by an FAA inspector, FAA-designated examiner, or authorized check instructor

By itself, this certificate does not permit the navigate to set up an mathematical process that carries members of the public for hire ; such operations are governed by other regulations. [ citation needed ] [ 24 ] Otherwise, a commercial pilot burner can be paid for certain types of operation, such as standard tow, agrarian applications, and photography, and can be paid for instructing if she or he holds a flight teacher certificate ( In the subject of lighter-than-air, only a commercial pilot program certificate is required to teach for that class ). To fly for rent, the pilot must hold a second class checkup certificate, which is valid for 12 calendar months if the pilot burner is 40 years or older ; if the fender is less than 40 years erstwhile the security is valid for 24 calendar months. [ 25 ] much, the commercial certificate reduces the navigate ‘s insurance premiums, as it is evidence of discipline to a higher safety standard. [ citation needed ]

Airline enchant fly [edit ]

An airline transport pilot burner ( normally called an “ ATP “ ) is tested to the highest floor of piloting ability. The certificate is a prerequisite for acting as a flight crew-member in scheduled airline operations. The minimum navigate experience is 1,500 hours of flight prison term ( 1200 for Helicopters ), 500 hours of cross-country flight time, 100 hours of night flight time, and 75 hours instrument operations clock ( simulated or actual ). other requirements include being 23 years of age, an instrument rat, being able to read, write, speak, and understand the English language, a rigorous written interrogation, and being of dear moral quality. [ 26 ] An Airline Transport Pilot – restricted ( ATP-r ) is besides available for pilots that do not meet the more rigorous requirements of an ATP. The only hour prerequisite for the ATP-r is 1,500 sum and 200 cross area. The “ sum clock ” prerequisite is reduced to 750 hours for erstwhile military pilots, 1,000 hours for graduates of university bachelor ‘s degree programs, or 1,250 for graduates of university associate degree programs. The holder of an ATP-r is limited to only serving as the first gear military officer in a two-pilot operation. Upon obtaining the needed senesce and aeronautical feel, the original is issued an unrestricted ATP without far examination. see 14CFR61.160 ( requirements ) and 14CFR61.167 ( privileges and limitations )

Remote pilot program [edit ]

UAVs weighting between more than 0.55 pound and less than 55 pound [ 27 ] or used in a commercial nature is discipline to Part 107 regulations. Exemptions for Part 107 are granted on a case by case basis by the FAA subject to risk extenuation. [ 28 ] UAV weighting 55 pound or more are subject to Part 333 regulations. [ 29 ] eligibility requirements : [ 30 ] [ 31 ]
( Non Part 61 certificate holders )

  • Be at least 16 years old
  • Be able to read, speak, write and understand the English language
  • Pass a required knowledge test
  • Must be easily accessible by the remote pilot during all UAS operations
  • Valid for 2 years – certificate holders must pass recurrent knowledge training every two years

( Part 61 certificate holders )

  • Must hold a pilot certificate issued under 14 CFR Part 61
  • Must have completed a flight review within the previous 24 months
  • Valid for 2 years – certificate holders must pass either a recurrent online training course OR recurrent knowledge test every two years

Restrictions [ 32 ]

  • Unmanned aircraft must weigh less than 55 lb. (25 kg).
  • Visual line-of-sight (VLOS) only; the unmanned aircraft must remain within VLOS of the remote pilot in command and the person manipulating the flight controls of the small UAS. Alternatively, the unmanned aircraft must remain within VLOS of the visual observer.
  • At all times the small unmanned aircraft must remain close enough to the remote pilot in command and the person manipulating the flight controls of the small UAS for those people to be capable of seeing the aircraft with vision unaided by any device other than corrective lenses.
  • Small unmanned aircraft may not operate over any persons not directly participating in the operation, not under a covered structure, and not inside a covered stationary vehicle.
  • For pilots that passed the knowledge test prior to April 2021 and have not taken the night operations training unit are limited to daylight-only operations, or civil twilight (30 minutes before official sunrise to 30 minutes after official sunset, local time) with appropriate anti-collision lighting.
  • Must yield right of way to other aircraft.
  • May use visual observer (VO) but not required.
  • First-person view camera cannot satisfy “see-and-avoid” requirement but can be used as long as requirement is satisfied in other ways.
  • Maximum groundspeed of 100 mph (87 knots).
  • Maximum altitude of 400 feet above ground level (AGL) or, if higher than 400 feet AGL, remain within 400 feet of a structure.
  • Minimum weather visibility of 3 miles from control station (500 feet of visibility below clouds, and 2000 feet horizontally away from clouds).[29]
  • Operations in Class B, C, D and E airspace are allowed with the required ATC permission.
  • Operations in Class G airspace are allowed without ATC permission.
  • No person may act as a remote pilot in command or VO for more than one unmanned aircraft operation at one time.
  • No operations from a moving aircraft.
  • No operations from a moving vehicle unless the operation is over a sparsely populated area.
  • No careless or reckless operations.
  • No carriage of hazardous materials.
  • Flying UAS in and around stadiums is prohibited starting one hour before and ending one hour after the scheduled time of any of the following events (Specifically, UAS operations are prohibited within a radius of three nautical miles of the stadium or venue.):[33]
    • Major League Baseball
    • National Football

It is possible to mix the license levels on one security. For exercise, a secret pilot with both glider and airplane ratings could earn a commercial license for gliders. The newly license would then list the airplane ratings as having only “ private privileges. ”

other certificates and ratings [edit ]

  • A flight instructor certificate authorizes the holder to give training and endorsement for a certificate, and perform a flight review. Flight instructors are required to have a concurrent Commercial Pilot certificate in the same category and class of aircraft. Although Flight Instructors are generally compensated, flight instruction is not considered commercial flight operation for purposes of medical certification or operational limitations. If flight instructors are also acting as Pilot in Command they are required to have a medical certificate appropriate for the particular flight. Flight instructor certificates automatically expire after 24 calendar months unless they are renewed by completing a flight instructor refresher course before they have expired.
  • A Ground Instructor Certificate authorizes the holder to give ground instruction, give knowledge exam endorsements, and provide the ground training portion of a flight review.[34]
  • An instrument rating is required to fly under instrument flight rules. Instrument ratings are issued for a specific category of aircraft; a pilot certificated to fly an airplane under IFR has an Instrument Airplane rating.
  • An instrument instructor rating authorizes a certificated flight instructor to give training and endorsement for an instrument rating pilot.
  • A multi-engine rating is required to fly an airplane with more than one engine. It is the most common example of a class rating.
  • A multi-engine instructor rating authorizes a certificated flight instructor to give training and endorsement for a multi-engine rating.

United States military pilots are issued an Aviator Badge upon completion of flight train and issue of a pilot burner ‘s security. Badges for crowd or ground positions are besides issued to stipulate applicants. Unmanned Aircraft System ( Drone ) pilots are required to obtain a outback fender aviator certificate with a small UAS rat when operating commercially. [ 35 ]

Number of active pilots [edit ]

An active original is defined as one who holds both a pilot certificate and a valid medical certificate, for certifications that require a aesculapian security. As of the end of 2020, in the US, there were an estimated 691,691 active certificated pilots. [ 36 ] This total has been declining gradually over the by respective decades, down from a high of 827,071 pilots in 1980. There were 702,659 in 1990, 625,581 in 2000, and 627,588 in 2010. [ 37 ] The numbers include :

U.S. Civil Airmen Statistics

These numbers are based on the highest certifications held by individual pilots .

Rating Year 2020 Year 2010 Year 2000 Year 1990 Year 1980 Year 1970 Year 1960
Pilots with flight instructor rating 117,558 96,473 80,931 63,775 60,440 37,882 31,459
Pilots with instrument rating 316,651 318,001 311,944 297,073 260,461 169,848 63,264
Total except student, sport, and recreational pilots 462,314 504,575 532,177 573,909 627,238 536,868 248,880
  • A person holds at least a commercial pilot certificate may apply for flight instructor rating. (with some exceptions for flight instructors with sport pilot rating)
  • A person holds at least a private pilot certificate may apply for instrument rating.

In addition, there are 206,322 distant pilots. Remote pilots are those licensed to operate unman aircraft systems ( drones ). The certificate began to be offered in 2016, and does not need an active agent aesculapian certificate to be considered active, but must take a re-training every 2 years

Category Year 2020 Year 2010 Year 2000 Year 1990 Year 1980 Year 1970 Year 1960
All pilot categories Total 691,691 627,588 625,581 702,659 827,071 732,729 348,062
Women 58,541 42,218 36,757 40,515 52,902 29,472 9,966
All pilot categories
except student pilots
Total 469,062 508,469 532,517 573,996 627,238 536,868 248,880
Women 26,854 27,451 25,948 25,508 26,896 13,685 4,218

medical certificate and requirements [edit ]

All certificated pilots, with the exception of those with a sport or Recreational navigate certificate [ 38 ] ( or when in command of balloons or gliders, including power assisted gliders, or pilots with “ higher ” certificates that choose to operate under the sport pilot program rules ), are required to maintain a aesculapian certificate commensurate with the privileges they intend to exercise as pilot-in-command of an aircraft. For sport pilot program certificate applicants or holders, regulations state that a checkup is required if the applicant/pilot does not hold a valid United States drivers license. To obtain a aesculapian certificate, pilots are required to undergo a aesculapian examination from an Aviation Medical Examiner, or AME. The Aviation Medical Examiner performs an examen based upon the class of authentication desired. [ 39 ] There are four options for medical reservation : [ citation needed ]

third class [edit ]

third base class certifications require the least involve examinations of all checkup certifications. They are required for those intending to be pilot-in-command of an aircraft under the Private or Recreational pilot program certificates or while exercising solo privileges as a scholar fly. To qualify for a third class checkup certificate, pilots must meet the surveil requirements :

  • Distant vision: 20/40 or better in each eye separately,[40] with or without correction
  • Near vision: 20/40 or better in each eye separately, with or without correction, as measured at a distance of 16 inches (410 mm)
  • Color vision: Demonstrate the ability to perceive the colors necessary for the safe performance of airman duties
  • Hearing: Demonstrate the ability to hear an average conversational voice in a quiet room, using both ears, at a distance of six feet, with their back turned to the examiner, or pass an approved audiometric test
  • Ear, Nose, and Throat: Exhibit no ear disease or condition manifested by, or that may reasonably be expected to be manifested by, vertigo or a disturbance of speech or equilibrium
  • Blood Pressure: Under 155/95
  • Mental Status: No diagnosis of psychosis, bipolar disorder, or severe personality disorders
  • Substance Dependence: No dependence on alcohol or any pharmacological substance in the previous two years

For pilots under 40 years of age, third class aesculapian certificates expire on the final day of the calendar month they were issued, five years from the date of emergence. The FAA changed this convention from three to five years on July 24, 2008. [ 41 ] [ 42 ] For all others, they expire on the last day of the calendar month they were issued, two years from the date of issue. In December 2015, the U.S. Senate passed a bill sponsored by Montana Senator Steve Daines, S. 571- Pilot ‘s Bill of Rights 2 ( PBOR 2 ). If signed into law, the charge would expand the third class medical exemption for amateur pilots by reforming the FAA ‘s checkup authentication procedure to include more qualified, discipline pilots. [ 43 ] [ 44 ]

BasicMed [edit ]

A navigate who has held a valid Third class or higher medical certificate since 2006 may fly certain aircraft under certain conditions under FAR Part 68 normally known as BasicMed by having a doctor fill up out an examen form every 4 years stating that the doctor knows of no reason why the navigate should n’t fly and taking an on-line test every 24 months .

  • Under 6000 lb Max Take Off Weight
  • 6 seats or fewer
  • Under 250 kn
  • Under 18,000 ft.

hypertext transfer protocol : //www.aopa.org/advocacy/pilots/medical/basicmed/third-class-airman-medical-reform

second class [edit ]

A second class medical is required for those intending to exercise the privileges of the commercial pilot program certificate. It is possible to obtain a commercial pilot burner certificate while holding a third classify aesculapian, but with the exception of flight teaching, the licensee can not exercise privileges beyond that of a private fly. To qualify for a second class checkup certificate, pilots must meet the requirements for the third gear class certificate plus :

  • Distant vision: 20/20 or better in each eye separately, with or without correction
  • Intermediate vision: 20/40 or better in each eye separately, with or without correction, at age 50 and over, as measured at 32 inches

second course certificates are valid until the final day of the calendar month, twelve months after they were issued. The certificate holder may then only exercise the privileges of a third base course medical certificate .

beginning class [edit ]

first class certificates are required for those intending to be pilot-in-command in an air carrier wave operation requiring an Airline Transport Pilot ( ATP ) security. other operations, including those under Part 91, may require a first class aesculapian for policy purposes, although it is not a federal prerequisite in such cases. To qualify for the beginning class medical certificate, pilots must meet the requirements for the third and moment class certificates plus :

  • Heart Function: Electrocardiogram must show normal heart function once at age 35 and annually for those age 40 and over
  • Maximum of 65[45]

For pilots under 40 years of age, first class checkup certificates expire on the last day of the calendar month they were issued, one year from the date of emergence. The FAA introduced this rule on July 24, 2008. [ 41 ] [ 42 ] For all others, they are valid until the last day of the calendar month, six months after they were issued. The certificate holder may then merely exercise the privileges of a second class medical certificate until the last day of the month, twelve months after the certificate was issued, thereafter the privileges of a third class aesculapian until the concluding day of the month, twenty four months after the aesculapian was issued ( FAA $ 61.23 ( d-1-iii ) ) .

special issue [edit ]

Pilots who do not meet the above requirements may be issued a checkup security under a “ especial issue. ” A particular issue is basically a release for a disqualify condition and are evaluated individual depending on the class of certificate requested. minor problems can be overcome by a special issue from an Aviation Medical Examiner, while others require a limited issue from the FAA directly .

Restrictions [edit ]

Restrictions may be placed upon a aesculapian certificate to mitigate any business for safety. A park limitation for pilots who require glasses or contacts to meet the want ocular acuity standards is that they “ MUST WEAR CORRECTIVE LENSES. ” color-blind pilots are typically issued a restriction reading, “ NOT VALID FOR NIGHT FLIGHT OR BY COLOR SIGNAL CONTROL. ” This mitigates the refer that color-blind pilots may not be able to identify those colors required for the performance of safe aviator duties by preventing situations that are considered potentially insecure.

For color vision deficient pilots, in many cases these restrictions can be removed through use of an FAA approved option function based color vision test, which if passed, the applicant must continue to retake that lapp test ( or any other passable tests ) at every renewal. If the fender applicant is unable to pass any of the office based tests, a very world operational test is available. This test consists of a ground-based chart read and master tower signal light test for Third Class aesculapian certification ( This is called the Operational Color Vision Test or OCVT ), and in addition to that, a specify “ checkup Flight quiz ” ( MFT ) is required for Second and First Class aesculapian certification. The applicant performs an actual flight test with an FAA Aviation Safety Inspector ( ASI ) for the aim of far demonstrating “ the ability to perceive those colors necessary for the safe performance of aviator duties ”, which is the color vision requirement as written in the FARs. note that “ Normal Color Vision ” is not required, as a sealed sum of coloring material sight insufficiency is considered safe and permitted. If the tests are passed, a “ Letter of Evidence ” ( LOE ) from the FAA is issued, which serves as evidence that the navigate meets the standards for Color Vision and the AME is permitted to issue the class of Medical Certificate indicated on the LOE ( All classes if both the OCVT and MFT are passed ) with no associate restriction if all other aesculapian requirements are met. This allows the pilot burner to receive a aesculapian certificate with no restrictions related to color imagination without the requirement of passing an office based color vision trial at every subsequent reclamation. alternatively, If an applicant is ineffective to pass both the OCVT and MFT, the applicant will keep the restriction permanently and will not be allowed any more future attempts to remove it. therefore, this method acting of limitation removal is seen as a bad high-reward option for aspiring pilots with color vision lack. [ 46 ]

Non-pilot certifications [edit ]

In accession to pilot program licenses the FAA besides issues other airmen certificates .
Pilots do not need FCC licenses to use the radio receiver within the United States ( original certificates double as FCC radio receiver licenses ) ; however, other countries may require that a pilot have an FCC Restricted Radiotelephone Operator Permit ( RR ), and the aircraft radio station be licensed. [ citation needed ]

  • Flight attendants are trained to the level required to earn an FAA Certificate of Demonstrated Proficiency. This is not considered to be an airman certification.
  • Avionics Techs. General radiotelephone operator license or (GROL) are certificated by the FCC.

See besides [edit ]

References [edit ]

reference : https://thaitrungkien.com
Category : Tutorial

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