Dog – Wikipedia

Domesticated canine species

The dog ( Canis familiaris [ 4 ] or Canis lupus familiaris ) is a domesticate descendant of the wolf. besides called the domestic dog, it is derived from the extinct Pleistocene wolf, [ 6 ] [ 7 ] and the modern wolf is the andiron ‘s nearest know relative. [ 8 ] Dogs were the first species to be domesticated [ 9 ] [ 8 ] by hunter-gatherers over 15,000 years ago [ 7 ] before the development of agriculture. [ 1 ] Due to their long association with humans, dogs have expanded to a large count of domestic individuals [ 10 ] and gained the ability to thrive on a starch -rich diet that would be inadequate for other canids. [ 11 ] The frank has been selectively bred over millennium for respective behaviors, sensational capabilities, and physical attributes. [ 12 ] Dog breeds vary wide in human body, size, and color. They perform many roles for humans, such as search, herd, pulling loads, protection, assisting police and the military, company, therapy, and aiding disabled people. Over the millennium, dogs became uniquely adapted to homo behavior, and the human-canine bond has been a topic of patronize sketch. [ 13 ] This influence on human club has given them the nickname of “ man ‘s best supporter “. [ 14 ]


In 1758, the swedish botanist and zoologist Carl Linnaeus published in his Systema Naturae, the two-word name of species ( binomial terminology ). Canis is the Latin word meaning “ frank ”, and under this genus, he listed the domestic frump, the wolf, and the gold jackal. He classified the domestic dog as Canis familiaris and, on the adjacent page, classified the grey beast as Canis lupus. [ 2 ] Linnaeus considered the dog to be a branch species from the wolf because of its upturning fag end ( cauda recurvata ), which is not found in any other canine. [ 16 ] In 1999, a study of mitochondrial DNA ( mtDNA ) indicated that the domestic frump may have originated from the gray wolf, with the dingo and New Guinea singing dog breeds having developed at a meter when human communities were more isolate from each early. [ 17 ] In the third base edition of Mammal Species of the World published in 2005, the mammalogist W. Christopher Wozencraft listed under the wolf Canis lupus its wild subspecies and proposed two extra subspecies, which formed the domestic cad clade : familiaris, as named by Linnaeus in 1758 and, dingo named by Meyer in 1793. Wozencraft included hallstromi ( the New Guinea singing dog ) as another name ( junior synonym ) for the dingo. Wozencraft referred to the mtDNA study as one of the guides informing his decisiveness. [ 3 ] Mammalogists have noted the inclusion body of familiaris and dingo together under the “ domestic pawl ” clade [ 18 ] with some debating it. [ 19 ] In 2019, a workshop hosted by the IUCN /Species Survival Commission ‘s Canid Specialist Group considered the dingo and the New Guinea singing frank to be feral Canis familiaris and consequently did not assess them for the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. [ 4 ]


location of a andiron ‘s carnassials ; the inside of the 4th upper premolar aligns with the external of the 1st lower molar, working like scissor blades The Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction consequence occurred 65 million years ago and brought an end to the non-avian dinosaurs and the appearance of the first carnivorans. The name carnivoran is given to a member of the ordering Carnivora. Carnivorans possess a common arrangement of teeth called carnassials, in which the first lower molar and the last upper premolar posse blade-like enamel crowns that act similar to a pair of shears for cutting kernel. This dental arrangement has been modified by adaptation over the past 60 million years for diets composed of kernel, for crushing vegetation, or for the loss of the carnassial function altogether as in seals, sea lions, and walruses. today, not all carnivorans are carnivores, such as the insect-eating aardwolf. The carnivoran ancestors of the dog-like caniforms and the cat-like feliforms began their separate evolutionary paths just after the end of the dinosaurs. The foremost members of the dog family Canidae appeared 40 million years ago, of which only its subfamily the Caninae survives today in the mannequin of the wolf-like and fox-like canines. Within the Caninae, the first members of genus Canis appeared six million years ago, the ancestors of modern domestic dogs, wolves, coyotes, and golden jackals .


The earliest remains by and large accepted to be those of a domestic cad were discovered in Bonn-Oberkassel, Germany. Contextual, isotopic, genetic, and morphologic tell shows that this frump was not a local wolf. [ 22 ] The cad was dated to 14,223 years ago and was found buried along with a man and a womanhood, all three having been sprayed with red hematite powder and buried under boastfully, dense basalt blocks. The frank had died of canine distemper. [ 23 ] Earlier remains dating back to 30,000 years ago have been described as Paleolithic dogs, but their status as dogs or wolves remains debated [ 24 ] because considerable geomorphologic diversity existed among wolves during the Late Pleistocene. [ 1 ] This time indicates that the pawl was the inaugural species to be domesticated [ 9 ] [ 8 ] in the time of hunter–gatherers, [ 7 ] which predates agriculture. [ 1 ] DNA sequences show that all ancient and modern dogs plowshare a common lineage and descended from an ancient, extinct wolf population which was clear-cut from the modern wolf linage. [ 6 ] [ 7 ] Most dogs form a sister group to the remains of a deep Pleistocene wolf found in the Kessleroch cave about Thayngen in the guangzhou of Schaffhausen, Switzerland, which dates to 14,500 years ago. The most recent park ancestor of both is estimated to be from 32,100 years ago. [ 25 ] This indicates that an extinct Late Pleistocene wolf may have been the ancestor of the dog, [ 8 ] [ 1 ] [ 26 ] with the modern wolf being the chase ‘s nearest living relative. [ 8 ] The dog is a authoritative case of a domestic animal that probably travelled a commensal pathway into domestication. [ 24 ] [ 27 ] The questions of when and where dogs were first domesticated have taxed geneticists and archaeologists for decades. [ 9 ] Genetic studies suggest a domestication process commencing over 25,000 years ago, in one or several wolf populations in either Europe, the senior high school Arctic, or eastern Asia. [ 10 ] In 2021, a literature revue of the current tell infers that the chase was domesticated in Siberia 23,000 years ago by ancient North Siberians, then late dispersed eastbound into the Americas and westward across Eurasia. [ 22 ]


Dog breeds show a range of phenotypical variation Dogs are the most varying mammal on earth with around 450 globally recognized chase breeds. [ 10 ] In the victorian earned run average, directed human choice developed the modern chase breeds, which resulted in a huge range of phenotypes. [ 8 ] Most breeds were derived from humble numbers of founders within the last 200 years, [ 8 ] [ 10 ] and since then dogs have undergo rapid phenotypical change and were formed into nowadays ‘s modern breeds due to artificial choice imposed by humans. The skull, body, and limb proportions vary significantly between breeds, with dogs displaying more phenotypical diversity than can be found within the integral order of carnivores. These breeds possess distinct traits related to morphology, which include body size, skull determine, chase phenotype, fur type and color. [ 8 ] Their behavioral traits include guarding, herd, and hunt, [ 8 ] retrieve, and scent signal detection. Their personality traits include hypersocial behavior, boldness, and aggression, [ 10 ] which demonstrates the running and behavioral diversity of dogs. [ 8 ] As a result, present day dogs are the most abundant carnivore species and are dispersed around the global. [ 10 ] The most strike model of this dispersion is that of the numerous modern breeds of european descent during the victorian era. [ 7 ]
Bangladeshi Dog


human body

skeletal system

A lateral watch of a dog skeletal system All healthy dogs, careless of their size and type, have an identical skeletal structure with the exception of the number of bones in the fag end, although there is significant bony variation between dogs of different types. The frump ‘s skeleton is well adapted for running ; the vertebra on the neck and back have extensions for herculean back muscles to connect to, the long rib provide batch of room for the heart and lungs, and the shoulders are unattached to the skeleton allowing bang-up tractability. Compared to the dog ‘s wolf-like ancestors, selective education since domestication has seen the frump ‘s skeletal system greatly enhanced in size for larger types as mastiffs and miniaturised for smaller types such as terriers ; dwarfism has been selectively utilized for some types where short legs are advantageous such as dachshunds and corgi. Most dogs naturally have 26 vertebrae in their tails, but some with naturally short tails have a few as three. The frank ‘s skull has identical components careless of breed type, but there is significant divergence in terms of skull human body between types. The three basic skull shapes are the elongate dolichocephalic character as seen in sighthounds, the intermediate mesocephalic or mesaticephalic type, and the very short and broad brachycephalic type exemplified by mastiff type skulls .


A dog ‘s senses include vision, hearing, smack, taste, reach, and sensitivity to Earth ‘s magnetic field. Another study has suggested that dogs can see Earth ‘s magnetic battlefield. [ 31 ]


Dogs display wide version in coat type, concentration, distance, discolor, and composition The coats of domestic dogs are of two varieties : “ double ” being familiar with dogs ( american samoa well as wolves ) originating from cold climates, made up of a coarse guard hair and a soft down hair’s-breadth, or “ single ”, with the greatcoat entirely. Breeds may have an casual “ blaze ”, stripe, or “ star ” of white fur on their chest of drawers or bottom. premature graying can occur in dogs from a early as one year of age ; this is associated with capricious behaviors, anxiety behaviors, fear of noise, and fear of unfamiliar people or animals. [ 33 ]


There are many different shapes for pawl tails : straight, straight up, sickle, curled, or corkscrew. As with many canids, one of the primary functions of a dog ‘s dock is to communicate their emotional state, which can be crucial in getting along with others. In some hunt dogs the dock is traditionally docked to avoid injuries .


Some breeds of dogs are prone to specific genetic ailments such as elbow and hep dysplasia, blindness, deafness, pneumonic stenosis, cleft palate, and magic trick knees. Two severe checkup conditions significantly affecting dogs are pyometra, affecting unspayed females of all breeds and ages, and Gastric dilation volvulus ( bloat ), which affects larger breeds or deep-chested dogs. Both of these are acute conditions and can kill quickly. Dogs are besides susceptible to parasites such as fleas, ticks, mites, hookworms, tapeworms, roundworms, and heartworms, which is a nematode species that lives in the hearts of dogs. several human foods and family ingestible are toxic to dogs, including cocoa solids, causing theobromine poisoning, onions and garlic, causing thiosulphate, sulfoxide or disulfide poisoning, grapes and raisins, macadamia nuts, and xylitol. [ 34 ] The nicotine in tobacco can besides be dangerous to dogs. Signs of consumption can include ample vomiting ( for example, from eating cigar cigarette ) or diarrhea. Some other symptoms are abdominal annoyance, loss of coordination, collapse, or death. [ 35 ] [ page needed ] Dogs are besides vulnerable to some of the lapp health conditions as humans, including diabetes, dental and heart disease, epilepsy, cancer, hypothyroidism, and arthritis .


The distinctive life of dogs varies widely among breeds, but for most, the median longevity ( the age at which half the dogs in a population have died and half are still alive ) ranges from 10 to 13 years. [ 36 ] [ 37 ] The median longevity of mixed-breed dogs, taken as an average of all sizes, is one or more years longer than that of purebred dogs when all breeds are averaged. [ 36 ] [ 37 ] [ 38 ] For dogs in England, increased body burden has been found to be negatively correlated with longevity ( i.e., the heavier the chase, the short its life ), and mixed-breed dogs live on average 1.2 years longer than thoroughbred dogs. [ 39 ]


A female frump nurse newborn puppies. In domestic dogs, sexual maturity happens around six months to one class for both males and females, although this can be delayed until up to two years of age for some large breeds, and is the fourth dimension at which female dogs will have their first estrous cycle. They will experience subsequent estrous cycles semiannually, during which the torso prepares for pregnancy. At the top out of the cycle, females will become estrous, mentally and physically receptive to sexual intercourse. Because the ovum survive and can be fertilized for a week after ovulation, more than one male can sire the same litter. [ 12 ] Fertilization typically occurs two to five days after ovulation ; 14–16 days after ovulation, the embryo attaches to the uterus and after seven to eight more days, a pulse is detectable. [ 40 ] [ 41 ] Dogs bear their litters roughly 58 to 68 days after fertilization, [ 12 ] [ 42 ] with an modal of 63 days, although the duration of pregnancy can vary. An average litter consists of about six puppies. [ 43 ]


alter is the sterilization of animals, normally by removing the male ‘s testicles or the female ‘s ovaries and uterus, to eliminate the ability to procreate and reduce sex drive. Because of dogs ‘ overpopulation in some countries, many animal control agencies, such as the american Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals ( ASPCA ), advise that dogs not intended for far breeding should be neutered, so that they do not have undesired puppies that may late be euthanized. [ 44 ] According to the Humane Society of the United States, three to four million dogs and cats are euthanized each year. [ 45 ] Many more are confined to cages in shelters because there are many more animals than there are homes. Spaying or castrating dogs helps keep overpopulation down. [ 46 ] Neutering reduces problems caused by hypersexuality, specially in male dogs. [ 47 ] Spayed female dogs are less likely to develop cancers affecting the mammary glands, ovaries, and early generative organs. [ 48 ] [ page needed ] however, neutering increases the risk of urinary incontinence in female dogs [ 49 ] and prostate cancer in males [ 50 ] and osteosarcoma, hemangiosarcoma, cruciate ligament tear, fleshiness, and diabetes mellitus in either sex. [ 51 ]

Inbreeding depression

A common education practice for darling dogs is mating between close relatives ( for example, between half and full siblings ). [ 52 ] Inbreeding depression is considered to be due chiefly to the formulation of homozygous deleterious recessionary mutations. [ 53 ] Outcrossing between unrelated individuals, including dogs of unlike breeds, results in the beneficial dissemble of deleterious recessive mutations in offspring. [ 54 ] In a study of seven frank breeds ( the Bernese Mountain Dog, Basset Hound, Cairn Terrier, Brittany, German Shepherd Dog, Leonberger, and West Highland White Terrier ), it was found that inbreeding decreases litter size and survival. [ 55 ] Another analysis of data on 42,855 Dachshund litters found that as the inbreeding coefficient increased, litter size decreased and the percentage of abortive puppies increased, therefore indicating inbreeding low. [ 56 ] In a study of Boxer litters, 22 % of puppies died before reaching 7 weeks of historic period. Stillbirth was the most frequent causal agent of death, followed by infection. Mortality due to infection increased significantly with increases in inbreeding. [ 57 ]


Dog swim over to catch a ball, pay attention to the leg and fag end movements Dog demeanor is the internally coordinated responses ( actions or inactions ) of the domestic cad ( individuals or groups ) to internal and external stimulation. [ 58 ] As the oldest domesticated species, dogs ‘ minds inescapably have been shaped by millennium of contact with humans. As a result of this physical and social evolution, dogs have acquired the ability to understand and communicate with humans more than any early species and they are uniquely attuned to homo behaviors. [ 13 ] Behavioral scientists have uncovered a surprise set of social-cognitive abilities in domestic dogs. These abilities are not possessed by the frump ‘s closest canine relatives or other highly healthy mammals, such as great apes, but rather parallel to children ‘s social-cognitive skills. [ 59 ] Unlike other domestic species selected for production-related traits, dogs were initially selected for their behaviors. [ 60 ] [ 61 ] In 2016, a study found that lone 11 fixed genes showed variation between wolves and dogs. [ 62 ] These gene variations were improbable to have been the result of natural evolution and indicate selection on both morphology and behavior during frump domestication. These genes have been shown to affect the catecholamine deduction nerve pathway, with the majority of the genes affecting the fight-or-flight reception [ 61 ] [ 63 ] ( i.e., selection for jejunity ) and aroused march. [ 61 ] Dogs by and large show reduced fear and aggression compared with wolves. [ 61 ] [ 64 ] Some of these genes have been associated with aggression in some cad breeds, indicating their importance in both the initial domestication and later in engender formation. [ 61 ] Traits of high sociability and miss of fear in dogs may include genetic modifications related to Williams-Beuren syndrome in humans, which cause hypersociability at the expense of problem-solving ability. [ 65 ]


Dog intelligence is the frump ‘s ability to perceive information and retain it as cognition for applying to solve problems. Studies of two dogs suggest that dogs can learn by inference and have advanced memory skills. A study with Rico, a Border Collie, showed that he knew the labels of over 200 different items. He inferred the names of novel things by ejection learn and correctly retrieved those newly items immediately and four weeks after the initial exposure. A analyze of another Border Collie, Chaser, documented his learn and memory capabilities. He had learned the names and could associate by verbal command over 1,000 words. [ 66 ] Dogs can read and react appropriately to human body speech such as gesticulate and point and human voice commands. One study of canine cognitive abilities found that dogs ‘ capabilities are no more exceptional than those of early animals, such as horses, chimpanzees, or cats. [ 67 ] One limited analyze of 18 family dogs found that they lacked spatial memory, and were more focussed on the “ what ” of a undertaking rather than the “ where ”. [ 68 ] Dogs demonstrate a hypothesis of thinker by engaging in deception. [ 69 ] An experimental analyze showed compel tell that australian dingo can outperform domestic dogs in non-social problem-solving, indicating that domestic dogs may have lost much of their original problem-solving abilities once they joined humans. [ 70 ] Another discipline revealed that after undergoing prepare to solve a simpleton manipulation tax, dogs faced with an insolvable translation of the lapp problem look at the human, while socialized wolves do not. [ 71 ]


Dog sounds

A andiron seduce noises and barkingProblems playing this file? See media help. Dog communication is how andiron convey information to other dogs, understand messages from humans and translate the information that dogs are transmitting. [ 72 ] : twelve Communication behaviors of dogs include center gaze, facial expression, voice, body position ( including movements of bodies and limbs ), and gustatory communication ( scents, pheromones, and preference ). Humans communicate to dogs by using voice, hand signals, and body position.



The dog is credibly the most widely abundant big carnivoran living in the human environment. [ 73 ] [ 74 ] In 2013, the estimated ball-shaped chase population was between 700 million [ 75 ] and 987 million. [ 76 ] About 20 % of dogs live as pets in develop countries. [ 77 ] In the develop world, dogs are typically feral or communally owned, with pet dogs uncommon. Most of these dogs live their lives as scavengers and have never been owned by humans, with one study showing their most common reply when approached by strangers is to run aside ( 52 % ) or respond aggressively ( 11 % ). [ 78 ] Little is known about these dogs, or the dogs in develop countries that are feral, strays, or are in shelters because the bang-up majority of modern inquiry on dog cognition has focused on favored dogs living in human homes. [ 79 ]

Competitors and predators

Although dogs are the most abundant and wide distributed sublunar carnivores, feral and free-ranging dogs ‘ likely to compete with early large carnivores is limited by their impregnable association with humans. [ 73 ] For example, a review of the studies in dogs ‘ competitive effects on sympatric carnivores did not mention any inquiry on rival between dogs and wolves. [ 80 ] [ 81 ] Although wolves are known to kill dogs, they tend to live in pairs or in little packs in areas where they are highly persecuted, giving them a disadvantage facing large pawl groups. [ 80 ] Wolves kill dogs wherever they are found together. In some instances, wolves have displayed an uncharacteristic fearlessness of humans and buildings when attacking dogs to the extent that they have to be beaten off or killed. [ 84 ] Although the numbers of dogs killed each class are relatively abject, it induces a concern of wolves entering villages and farmyards to take dogs and losses of dogs to wolves have led to demands for more broad wolf hunting regulations. [ 80 ] Coyotes and big cats have besides been known to attack dogs. In finical, leopards are known to have a predilection for dogs and have been recorded to kill and consume them, no matter what their size. [ 85 ] Siberian tigers in the Amur River region have killed dogs in the middle of villages. This indicates that the dogs were targeted. Amur tigers will not tolerate wolves as competitors within their territories, and the tigers could be considering dogs in the lapp direction. [ 86 ] Striped hyenas are known to kill dogs in their range. [ 87 ]


Dogs have been described as omnivores. [ 12 ] [ 88 ] [ 89 ] Compared to wolves, dogs from agrarian societies have extra copies of amylase and other genes involved in starch digestion that lend to an increased ability to thrive on a starch-rich diet. [ 11 ] Similar to humans, some frump breeds produce amylase in their saliva and are classified as having a high starch diet. [ 90 ] however, more like cats and less like other omnivores, dogs can only produce bile acid with taurine and they can not produce vitamin D, which they obtain from animal flesh. besides more like cats, dogs require arginine to maintain its nitrogen balance. These nutritional requirements place dogs halfway between carnivores and omnivores. [ 91 ]


As a domesticated or semi-domesticated animal, the frank is about universal among human societies. celebrated exceptions once included :
Dogs were introduced to Antarctica as sled dogs, but were subsequently outlawed by international agreement due to the possible risk of spreading infections. [ 100 ]

Roles with humans

domestic dogs inherited complex behaviors, such as sting prohibition, from their wolf ancestors, which would have been pack hunters with a complex soundbox language. These twist forms of social cognition and communication may account for their trainability, gaiety and ability to fit into human households and social situations. These attributes have given dogs a relationship with humans that has enabled them to become one of the most successful animals today. [ 101 ] The dogs ‘ value to early human hunter-gatherers led to them promptly becoming omnipresent across world cultures. Dogs perform many roles for people, such as hunt, herd, pulling loads, protection, assisting patrol and the military, company and aiding disabled individuals. This charm on homo society has given them the nickname “ valet ‘s best friend “ in the westerly worldly concern. In some cultures, however, dogs are besides a generator of meat. [ 102 ] [ 103 ]


It is estimated that three-quarters of the world ‘s frump population lives in the evolve world as feral, greenwich village, or community dogs, with favored dogs rare. [ 104 ] [ page needed ] “ The most widespread shape of interspecies bonding occurs between humans and dogs ” [ 105 ] and the keeping of dogs as companions, peculiarly by elites, has a long history. [ 14 ] Pet pawl populations grew significantly after World War II as suburbanization increased. [ 14 ] In the 1950s and 1960s, dogs were retain outside more often than they tend to be today [ 106 ] ( the formulation “ in the kennel ” – recorded since 1932 [ 107 ] – to describe ejection from the group implies a distance between the kennel and the family ) and were still chiefly functional, acting as a guard, children ‘s playmate, or walking companion. From the 1980s, there have been changes in the favored andiron ‘s role, such as the increase function of dogs in the emotional hold of their homo guardians. [ 108 ] [ page needed ] People and their dogs have become increasingly integrated and implicated in each early ‘s lives [ 109 ] [ page needed ] to the sharpen where positron emission tomography dogs actively shape how a family and home are experienced. [ 110 ] There have been two significant trends occurring within the second half of the twentieth century in darling dogs ‘ changing condition. The first has been “ commodification ”, shaping it to conform to social expectations of personality and demeanor. [ 110 ] The second has been the broaden of the syndicate ‘s concept and the home to include dogs-as-dogs within everyday routines and practices. [ 110 ] A huge compass of commodity forms aims to transform a positron emission tomography dog into an ideal companion. [ 111 ] The list of goods, services, and places available is enormous : from frank perfumes, couture, furniture and house to dog groomers, therapists, trainers and caretakers, frump cafe, watering place, parks and beaches and frank hotels, airlines and cemeteries. [ 111 ] Dog prepare books, classes, and television programs proliferated as the action of commodifying the darling dog continued. [ 112 ] The majority of contemporary frank owners describe their pet as region of the family, although some ambivalence about the relationship is discernible in the democratic reconceptualization of the dog-human family as a pack. [ 110 ] Some cad trainers, such as on the television program Dog Whisperer, have promoted a laterality model of dog-human relationships. however, it has been disputed that “ trying to achieve status ” is characteristic of dog-human interactions. [ 113 ] The theme of the “ alpha dog “ trying to be dominant is based on a disproved theory about wolf packs. [ 114 ] [ 115 ] Pet dogs play an active agent function in family life ; for example, a survey of conversations in dog-human families showed how family members use the andiron as a resource, talking to the dog, or talking through the andiron ; to mediate their interactions with each early. [ 116 ] increasingly, human family-members betroth in activities centered on the cad ‘s perceived needs and interests, or in which the cad is an integral partner, such as cad dance and frank yoga. [ 111 ] According to statistics published by the American Pet Products Manufacturers Association in the National Pet Owner Survey in 2009–2010, an estimated 77.5 million people in the United States have pet dogs. [ 117 ] The lapp reservoir shows that about 40 % of american households own at least one frump, of which 67 % own just one frank, 25 % two dogs and about 9 % more than two dogs. There does not seem to be any gender preference among dogs as pets, as the statistical data reveal an peer numeral of male and female pet dogs. Although several programs promote darling adoption, less than one-fifth of the own dogs come from shelters. [ 117 ] A report using magnetic rapport imaging ( MRI ) to compare humans and dogs showed that dogs have the like response to voices and use the lapp parts of the brain as humans do. This gives dogs the ability to recognize homo emotional sounds, making them friendly social pets to humans. [ 118 ]


Dogs have lived and worked with humans in many roles. In addition to dogs ‘ function as company animals, dogs have been bred for herding livestock ( collies, sheepdogs ), [ 119 ] [ page needed ] [ 12 ] hunt ( hounds, pointers ) [ 120 ] [ page needed ] and rodent operate ( terriers ). [ 12 ] other types of working dogs include search and rescue dogs, [ 121 ] signal detection dogs trained to detect illicit drugs [ 122 ] or chemical weapons ; [ 123 ] guard dogs ; dogs who assist fishermen with the use of nets ; and dogs that pull loads. [ 12 ] In 1957, the chase Laika became the first animal to be launched into Earth orb, aboard the Soviets ‘ Sputnik 2 ; she died during the flight. [ 124 ] [ 125 ] respective kinds of service dogs and aid dogs, including guide dogs, hearing dogs, mobility aid dogs and psychiatric service dogs, assist individuals with disabilities. [ 126 ] [ 127 ] Some dogs owned by people with epilepsy have been shown to alert their coach when the animal trainer shows signs of an impend seizure, sometimes well in promote of attack, allowing the defender to seek safety, medication, or checkup caution. [ 128 ]

Athletes and models

People often enter their dogs in competitions, such as breed-conformation shows or sports, including rush, sledding and agility competitions. In shape shows, besides referred to as engender shows, a evaluator familiar with the particular dog breed evaluates individual purebred dogs for accord with their established breed type as described in the breed standard. As the breed standard only deals with the cad ‘s outwardly discernible qualities ( such as appearance, movement and temperament ), individually tested qualities ( such as ability or health ) are not separate of the pronounce in shape shows .


Dog kernel is consumed in some East asian countries, including Korea, [ 129 ] [ page needed ] China, [ 102 ] Vietnam [ 103 ] and the Philippines, [ 130 ] which dates back to antiquity. [ 131 ] Based on restrict data, it is estimated that 13–16 million dogs are killed and consumed in Asia every year. [ 132 ] In China, debates have ensued over banning the consumption of frump meat. [ 133 ] Following the Sui and Tang dynasties of the first millennium, however, people living on northerly China ‘s plains began to eschew eating dogs, which is likely due to Buddhism and Islam ‘s spread, two religions that forbade the consumption of certain animals, including the dog. As members of the amphetamine classes shunned frump meat, it gradually became a sociable taboo to eat it, even though the general population continued to consume it for centuries subsequently. [ citation needed ] Dog kernel is besides consumed in some parts of Switzerland. [ 134 ] other cultures, such as Polynesia and pre-columbian Mexico, besides consumed dog kernel in their history. Dog fat is besides reportedly believed to be beneficial for the lungs in some parts of Poland [ 135 ] [ 136 ] and Central Asia. [ 137 ] [ 138 ] Proponents of eating andiron kernel have argued that placing a distinction between livestock and dogs is western hypocrisy and that there is no dispute in eating different animals ‘ kernel. [ 139 ] [ 140 ] [ 141 ] [ 142 ] In Korea, the chief frump breed raised for meat, the Nureongi, differs from those breeds raised for pets that Koreans may keep in their homes. [ 143 ] The most popular korean pawl cup of tea is called bosintang, a hot stew meant to balance the body ‘s heat during the summer months. Followers of the custom-made claim this is done to ensure good health by balancing one ‘s gi, or the body ‘s vital energy. A 19th-century translation of bosintang explains that the dish is prepared by boiling chase kernel with scallions and chili powder. Variations of the dish control chicken and bamboo shoots. While the dishes are inactive prevailing in Korea with a segment of the population, cad is not as widely consumed as gripe, pork and chicken. [ 143 ]

Health risks

In 2018, the WHO reported that 59,000 people died globally from rabies, with 59.6 % in Asia and 36.4 % in Africa. Rabies is a disease for which dogs are the most authoritative vector. [ 144 ] Significant chase bites affect tens of millions of people globally each year. Children in mid-to-late childhood are the largest percentage bite by dogs, with a greater risk of injury to the question and neck. They are more likely to need medical treatment and have the highest death rate. [ 145 ] Sharp claw with mighty muscles behind them can lacerate pulp in a scratch that can lead to serious infections. [ 146 ] In the U.S., cats and dogs are a agent in more than 86,000 falls each year. [ 147 ] It has been estimated that around 2 % of dog-related injuries treated in U.K. hospitals are domestic accidents. The like report found that while frump affair in road dealings accidents was unmanageable to quantify, dog-associated road accidents involving injury more normally imply two-wheel vehicles. [ 148 ] Toxocara canis ( dog nematode ) eggs in andiron feces can cause toxocariasis. In the United States, about 10,000 cases of Toxocara contagion are reported in humans each year, and about 14 % of the U.S. population is infected. [ 149 ] Untreated toxocariasis can cause retinal damage and decrease vision. [ 150 ] Dog feces can besides contain hookworms that cause cutaneous larva migrans in humans. [ 151 ] [ 152 ]

Health benefits

Walking a frank Dogs suffer from the same common disorders as humans ; these include cancer, diabetes, heart disease and neurological disorders. Their pathology is similar to humans, as is their reaction to treatment and their outcomes. Researchers are identifying the genes associated with frump diseases similar to human disorders, but lack mouse models to find cures for both dogs and humans. The genes involved in canine obsessive-compulsive disorders led to the detection of four genes in humans ‘ related pathways. [ 10 ] The scientific evidence is mix as to whether a dog ‘s company can enhance human physical health and psychological wellbeing. [ 153 ] Studies suggesting that there are benefits to physical health and psychological wellbeing [ 154 ] have been criticized for being ailing controlled. [ 155 ] It found that “ the health of aged people is related to their health habits and social supports but not to their ownership of, or attachment to, a companion animal. ” Earlier studies have shown that people who keep favored dogs or cats exhibit better mental and physical health than those who do not, making fewer visits to the sophisticate and being less likely to be on medicine than non-guardians. [ 156 ] A 2005 composition states “ recent research has failed to support earlier findings that pet ownership is associated with a reduce risk of cardiovascular disease, a reduced use of general practitioner services, or any psychological or physical benefits on health for community dwelling older people. Research has, however, pointed to importantly less absenteeism from school through illness among children who live with pets. ” [ 153 ] In one discipline, new guardians reported a highly meaning reduction in child health problems during the first calendar month following favored learning. This effect was sustained in those with dogs through to the end of the study. [ 157 ] People with pet dogs took well more physical exercise than those with cats and those without pets. The results provide testify that keeping pets may have positive effects on human health and demeanor and that for guardians of dogs, these effects are relatively long-run. [ 157 ] Pet care has besides been associated with increase coronary artery disease survival. human guardians are significantly less likely to die within one class of an acuate myocardial infarct than those who did not own dogs. [ 158 ] The association between cad ownership and adult physical action levels has been reviewed by respective authors. [ 159 ] [ 160 ] The health benefits of dogs can result from contact with dogs in general, not entirely from having dogs as pets. For model, when in a pet frank ‘s presence, people show reductions in cardiovascular, behavioral and psychological indicators of anxiety. [ 161 ] other health benefits are gained from exposure to immune-stimulating microorganisms, which can protect against allergies and autoimmune diseases according to the hygiene hypothesis. The benefits of liaison with a frank besides include social confirm, as dogs can not only provide company and social documentation themselves but besides act as facilitators of social interactions between humans. [ 162 ] One analyze indicated that wheelchair users experience more positive social interactions with strangers when accompanied by a chase than when they are not. [ 163 ] In 2015, a study found that positron emission tomography owners were significantly more likely to get to know people in their region than non-pet owners. [ 164 ] Using dogs and other animals as a part of therapy dates back to the late eighteenth century, when animals were introduced into mental institutions to help socialize patients with mental disorders. [ 165 ] Animal-assisted intervention research has shown that animal-assisted therapy with a frank can increase social behaviors, such as smiling and laughing, among people with Alzheimer ‘s disease. [ 166 ] One study demonstrated that children with ADHD and behave disorders who participated in an department of education program with dogs and early animals showed increase attendance, increased cognition and skill objectives and decreased antisocial and violent demeanor compared with those not in an animal-assisted program. [ 167 ]

cultural importance

Dogs were depicted to symbolize guidance, protection, loyalty, fidelity, fidelity, watchfulness, and love. [ 168 ] In ancient Mesopotamia, from the Old babylonian period until the Neo-Babylonian, dogs were the symbol of Ninisina, the goddess of heal and medicine, [ 169 ] and her worshippers frequently dedicated small models of seat dogs to her. [ 169 ] In the Neo-Assyrian and Neo-Babylonian periods, dogs were used as emblems of charming auspices. [ 169 ] In China, Korea and Japan, dogs are viewed as kind protectors. [ 170 ] In mythology, dogs frequently serve as pets or as watchdogs. [ 170 ] Stories of dogs guarding the gates of the underworld fall back throughout aryan mythologies [ 171 ] [ 172 ] and may originate from Proto-Indo-European religion. [ 171 ] [ 172 ] In Greek mythology, Cerberus is a three-headed, dragon -tailed watchdog who guards the gates of Hades. [ 170 ] Dogs are besides associated with the Greek goddess Hecate. [ 173 ] In Norse mythology, a bloody, four-eyed frank called Garmr guards Helheim. [ 170 ] In Persian mythology, two four-eyed dogs guard the Chinvat Bridge. [ 170 ] In Welsh mythology, Annwn is guarded by Cŵn Annwn. [ 170 ] In Hindu mythology, Yama, the deity of death, owns two watchdogs who have four eyes. They are said to watch over the gates of Naraka. [ 174 ] A black dog is besides considered to be the vahana ( vehicle ) of Bhairava ( an incarnation of Shiva ). [ 175 ] In Christianity, dogs represent fidelity. [ 170 ] Within the Roman Catholic appellation specifically, the iconography of Saint Dominic includes a frump, after the saint ‘s mother dream of a dog springing from her uterus and becoming meaning concisely after that. [ 176 ] As such, the dominican Order ( ecclesiastical latin : Domini canis ) means “ pawl of the Lord ” or “ hound of the Lord ” ( ecclesiastical romance : Domini canis ). [ 176 ] In Christian folklore, a church blue much takes the shape of a black frank to guard christian churches and their churchyards from profanation. [ 177 ] Jewish law does not prohibit keeping dogs and early pets. jewish law requires Jews to feed dogs ( and other animals that they own ) before themselves and make arrangements for feeding them before obtaining them. [ citation needed ] The position on dogs in Islam is shuffle, with some schools of think viewing it as unclean, [ 170 ] although Khaled Abou El Fadl states that this view is based on “ pre-Islamic Arab mythology ” and “ a tradition to be falsely attributed to the Prophet. ” [ 178 ] Therefore, Sunni Malaki and Hanafi jurists permit the trade of and keeping of dogs as pets. [ 179 ]


  • Dog – the species (or subspecies) as a whole, also any male member of the same.
  • Bitch – any female member of the species (or subspecies).
  • Puppy or pup – a young member of the species (or subspecies) under 12 months old.[182]
  • Sire – the male parent of a litter.[182]
  • Dam – the female parent of a litter.[182]
  • Litter – all of the puppies resulting from a single whelping.[182]
  • Whelping – the act of a bitch giving birth.[182]
  • Whelps – puppies still dependent upon their dam.[182]

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