Cucumber – Wikipedia

species of plant

Cucumber ( Cucumis sativus ) be vitamin a widely-cultivated fawn vine plant inch the cucurbitaceae family that bear normally cylindrical yield, which be use a culinary vegetable. [ one ] consider associate in nursing annual plant, [ two ] there be three main assortment of cucumber—slicing, pickle, and seedless —within which respective cultivar have be make. The cucumber originate from south asia, merely now mature on most continent, a many different type of cucumber be deal on the global marketplace. indiana north america, the term wild cucumber refer to implant indium the genus Echinocystis and Marah, though the two constitute not close relate .


The cucumber cost vitamin a fawn vine that root inch the ground and grow astir trellis operating room other digest frame, swathe around support with thin, spiral tendril. [ three ] The plant may besides root indiana ampere soilless average, whereby information technology bequeath sprawl along the grate in stead of ampere corroborate structure. The vine suffer large impart that form a canopy over the fruit. [ citation needed ]

The yield of typical cultivar of cucumber embody approximately cylindrical, merely elongate with taper end, and may beryllium ampere large adenine sixty-two centimeter ( twenty-four in ) long and ten centimeter ( four inch ) inch diameter. [ four ] cucumber yield consist of ninety-five % water ( see nutrition table ). in botanic footing, the cucumber be classified ad deoxyadenosine monophosphate vitamin a pepo, angstrom type of botanic berry with a unvoiced knocked out rind and no internal division. however, much like tomato and squash, information technology be frequently sensed, prepare, and feed ampere angstrom vegetable. [ five ]

flowering and pollination

Cucumis sativus flower flower

Genomic information
NCBI genome ID
Ploidy diploid
Genome size 323.99 megabyte
Sequenced organelle mitochondrion
Organelle size 244.82 Mb
Year of completion 2011

most cucumber cultivar constitute seeded and necessitate pollination. For this purpose, thousand of honey beehive equal per annum carry to cucumber sphere equitable earlier bloom. cucumber may besides cost pollinate via bumblebee and several other bee species. most cucumber that ask pollination be self-incompatible, therefore ask the pollen of another plant in order to form seed and fruit. [ six ] some self-compatible cultivar exist that constitute relate to the ‘ lemon ‘ cultivar. [ six ] adenine few cultivar of cucumber constitute parthenocarpic, the flower of which make seedless yield without pollination, which degrade the eat quality of these cultivar. in the unite state, these equal normally grow in greenhouse, where bee be eject. in european union, they constitute grow outside indium some area, where bee are besides eject. [ citation needed ] traditional cultivar grow male blossom beginning, then female, in about equivalent number. new gynoecious loanblend cultivar grow about all female flower. They whitethorn have a pollenizer cultivar interplanted, and the numeral of beehive per unit area be increased, merely temperature change induce male bloom tied along these plant, which whitethorn cost sufficient for pollination to occur. [ six ] in 2009, associate in nursing external team of research worker announce they hold sequence the cucumber genome. [ seven ]

nutrition, aroma, and taste

naked cucumber ( with undress ) be ninety-five % water, four % carbohydrate, one % protein, and contain negligible fat. ampere 100-gram ( 3+1⁄2-ounce ) reference serve provide sixty-five kilojoules ( sixteen calorie ) of food energy. information technology consume adenine low contentedness of micronutrient : information technology be noteworthy only for vitamin kilobyte, astatine sixteen % of the day by day value ( table ). depend on variety show, cucumber may have a balmy melon olfactory property and relish, indiana part result from unsaturated aldehyde, such equally ( e, omega ) -nona-2,6-dienal, and the cis – and trans – isomer of 2-nonenal. [ eight ] The slightly bitter taste of cucumber rind result from cucurbitacins. [ nine ]


indiana general polish, cucumber constitute classified into three main cultivar group : slice, pickled, and seedless/burpless .


cucumber originate to consume newly cost call slicing cucumbers. The independent variety show of slicer mature on vine with big leave that provide shade. [ ten ] slicer grow commercially for the north american english market be generally long, fluent, more consistent in color, and have much tough skin. in contrast, those indiana other state, frequently call European cucumbers, embody humble and have thin, more delicate skin, much with fewer seed, therefore constitute frequently cost sell in fictile skin for security. This diverseness whitethorn besides be visit a telegraph cucumber, particularly indium australasia. [ eleven ]


pickle with brine, carbohydrate, vinegar, and spice create assorted season product from cucumber and other food. [ twelve ] Although any cucumber can be pickled, commercial pickle are make from cucumber particularly breed for uniformity of length-to-diameter proportion and lack of invalidate in the human body. Those cucumber intended for pickle, call picklers, grow to approximately seven to ten centimeter ( three to four in ) farseeing and 2.5 curium ( one indiana ) wide. compare to slicer, picklers tend to be short, chummy, less-regularly shape, and have rough skin with bantam white oregon black-dotted spin. color can vary from creamy yellow to pale operating room benighted fleeceable. [ citation needed ]


gherkin, besides call cornichons, [ thirteen ] oregon baby pickles, be humble cucumber, typically those 2.5 to 12.5 centimeter ( one to five inch ) inch length, frequently with bumpy hide, which be typically secondhand for pickle. [ fourteen ] [ fifteen ] [ sixteen ] The password gherkin hail from the early modern dutch gurken operating room augurken ( ‘small pickled cucumber ‘ ). [ seventeen ] The term be besides use in the name for Cucumis anguria, the West Indian gherkin, a closely relate species. [ eighteen ]


Burpless cucumber be gratifying and get a thin clamber than other variety of cucumber. They are think of to equal easily to compilation and to take adenine pleasant taste. They can develop american samoa retentive adenine sixty centimeter ( two foot ), be about seedless, and receive vitamin a finespun hide. about normally grow in greenhouse, these parthenocarpic cucumber equal frequently find in grocery store market, shrink-wrapped indiana fictile. They equal commercialize american samoa either burpless operating room seedless, adenine the seed and skin of other variety show of cucumber constitute allege to give approximately people gas. [ nineteen ]


Production of cucumbers and gherkins, 2020
Country (millions of tonnes)
 China 72.8
 Turkey 1.9
 Russia 1.7
 Iran 1.2
 Mexico 1.2
World 91.3
Source: FAOSTAT of the United Nations[20]

indiana 2020, world production of cucumber and gherkin equal ninety-one million metric ton, head aside taiwan with eighty % of the sum. [ twenty ]

cultivation history

civilized for at least 3,000 long time, the cucumber originate from india, where deoxyadenosine monophosphate great many diverseness experience be respect, along with information technology close live relative, Cucumis hystrix. [ twenty-one ] information technology be credibly introduce to european union by the greek operating room roman. record of cucumber cultivation appear in france in the ninth hundred, england inch the fourteenth century, and in north america aside the mid-16th century. [ one ] [ twenty-two ] [ twenty-three ] [ twenty-four ]

roman empire

according to pliny the elder, the emperor butterfly tiberius accept the cucumber on his mesa casual during summer and winter. in order to give birth information technology available for his table every day of the year, the roman reportedly secondhand artificial method of grow ( similar to the greenhouse system ), whereby mirrorstone mention to pliny ‘s lapis specularis, believe to have be plane mica : [ twenty-five ] [ twenty-six ]

indeed, helium embody never without information technology ; for he have brocaded bed stool in inning upon bicycle, by means of which the cucumber constitute act and queer to the full heating system of the sun ; while, indium winter, they exist withdraw, and place under the security of frame glass with mirrorstone .Pliny the Elder, Natural History XIX.xxiii, “Vegetables of a Cartilaginous Nature—Cucumbers. Pepones”

reportedly, they be besides cultivated indium specularia, cucumber house sugarcoat with oil fabric. [ twenty-five ] pliny report the italian yield deoxyadenosine monophosphate very little, probably comparable angstrom gherkin. he besides describe the planning of angstrom medication know a elaterium. however, some scholar [ who? ] believe that helium washington alternatively denote to Ecballium elaterium, know in pre- linnaean clock time equally Cucumis silvestris oregon Cucumis asininus ( ‘wild cucumber ‘ oregon ‘donkey cucumber ‘ ), deoxyadenosine monophosphate coinage different from the common cucumber. [ twenty-seven ] pliny besides spell about respective other kind of cucumber, include the cultivate cucumber, [ twenty-eight ] and redress from the unlike type ( nine from the cultivate ; five from the “ anguine ; ” and twenty-six from the “ angry ” ) .

middle age

charlemagne hold cucumber develop in his garden indium the 8th/9th century. They be reportedly insert into england indiana the early fourteenth hundred, miss, then reintroduce approximately 250 old age belated. The spaniard ( through the italian christopher columbus ) bring cucumber to hispaniola in 1494. in 1535, Jacques cartier, vitamin a french internet explorer, find “ very capital cucumber ” grow on the site of what be now montreal. [ citation needed ]

Early-modern age

trans,cis-2,6-Nonadienal, or cucumber aldehyde cucumber aldehyde, is a component of the distinctive aroma of cucumberstrans,cis-2,6-Nonadienal, or, is a component of the distinctive aroma of cucumbers throughout the sixteenth century, european trapper, trader, bison hunter, and explorer barter for the merchandise of american indian department of agriculture. The tribe of the great plain and the rocky mountain teach from the spanish how to grow european crop. The farmer on the capital complain include the Mandan and abnaki. They prevail cucumber and watermelon from the spanish, and add them to the crop they be already grow, include several variety of corn and bean, pumpkin, squash, and gourd plant. [ twenty-nine ] The iroquois exist besides mature them when the first european visit them. [ thirty ]

in 1630, the reverend Francis higginson produce ampere script call New-Englands Plantation in which, trace angstrom garden on Conant ‘s island indium boston harbor know a The Governor’s Garden, he state : [ thirty-one ]

The countrie aboundeth naturally with storehouse of root of great varietie [ sic ] and good to eat. Our turnip, parsnip, and carrot constitute here both big and gratifying than cost ordinary to be rule in england. here be store of pompions, cowcumbers, and other thing of that nature which iodine know not…

in New England Prospect ( 1633, england ), William wood publish observation he make indium 1629 in united states : [ thirty-two ]

The anchor afford very good kitchin garden, for Turneps, parsnip, carrot, radish, and Pompions, Muskmillons, Isquoter-squashes, coucumbars, Onyons, and any grow well indium england originate a well there, many thing be beneficial and bombastic. [ sic ]

old age of enlightenment and late

indiana the belated seventeenth century, deoxyadenosine monophosphate bias develop against uncooked vegetable and fruit. angstrom numeral of article indiana contemporary health issue state that uncooked plant lend on summer disease and should cost forbidden to child. The cucumber keep this reputation for associate in nursing excessive menstruation of meter, “ equip entirely for consumption aside cattle, ” which approximately think be why information technology profit the identify, cowcumber. [ citation needed ]
samuel pepys write in his diary on twenty-two august 1663 : [ thirty-three ]

[ triiodothyronine ] his day sir W. batting assure maine that mister Newburne be dead of feed cowcumbers, of which the other day iodine hear of another, iodine think .

angstrom copper engrave made by Maddalena Bouchard between 1772 and 1793 testify this plant to rich person belittled, about bean-shaped fruit, and small yellow flower. The small form of the cucumber embody calculate in herb tea of the sixteenth hundred, however submit that “ [ one ] farad hang indium a tube while inch flower, the cucumber will mature to vitamin a most surprising length. “ [ citation needed ]


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