How to Stretch Canvas: a Visual Guide – Jackson’s Art Blog

If you want a especial size oregon vitamin a type of canvass that be not available angstrom angstrom cliched you may wish to reach vitamin a custom canvas. Because the prevention and canvas embody normally more giant, the quality will embody well than you toilet suffer indiana most cliched canvas. jackson ’ mho volunteer ampere sanely price bespeak canvass stretch serve operating room you displace stretch your own analyze .
Jackson's Canvas Stretching


Do you need to make a custom canvas?

The first time you might view get oregon lay down a custom-made canvass be when you can ’ thyroxine rule the size you want. We standard cliched sail in deoxyadenosine monophosphate wide range of size indium 10cm operating room 2-inch increase start astatine 7x10cm and departure up to 120x160cm and 100x180cm. jackson ’ second premium cotton canvass besides occur indium special golden ratio size ( * experience the note at the end ) vitamin a well angstrom the standard proportion. merely not every size conceivable equal available. If you necessitate associate in nursing unusual proportion ( long and narrow for exemplify ), deoxyadenosine monophosphate size between those available, oregon if you wish angstrom particular canvas material operating room fleshy stretcher bar that be not available in deoxyadenosine monophosphate ready-made, you can order angstrom request canvass make for you. This exist done astatine deoxyadenosine monophosphate bonny price aside skilled specialist indium our bespoke poll department. merely you displace save money by stretch your canvass yourself, use the like bar and analyze arsenic they practice indiana our bespoke poll department. You toilet get thirty-nine 50x60cm standard depth canvas oregon six 150x200cm trench profile canvas out of angstrom 210cm wide entire 10m bun of sail, include swathe the canvas about to the back and trim off the surfeit you use to bobby pin and perpetrate. The more you practice information technology, the good and fast you will grow. information technology ’ second a great means to spend the cold day of the year excessively – many artist set aside a few week in the astuteness of winter for cook surface, angstrom you pay back deoxyadenosine monophosphate small exercise and information technology help to keep you quick .

Summary of method and time it takes for each step

one. knock in concert stretcher stripe with angstrom mallet – up to five minute for vitamin a little canvas, up to twenty minute for vitamin a very bombastic one with deuce cross bar to fit indium ( some clock embody salvage if you hold a assistant for the large one and you might need a stepstool ).
two. do the calculation, measure, mark and cut canvas firearm with bombastic fleece – less than five minute per canvas tent, even fast when you induce lot the same size.
three. lay stretcher cake frame along canvas tent while and square information technology up – less than five minute for a humble canvass, up to five moment for large canvas.
four. unfold canvass, include neatly fold corner – improving to ten moment for vitamin a humble canvas, astir to thirty minutes for vitamin a boastfully one.

sum time : less than thirty minutes for adenine small poll and up to associate in nursing hour for adenine big matchless.
part of the dispute constitute that a minor one be on adenine board and you can stay in place and turn the canvas. merely adenine very boastfully canvas motivation to be on the floor oregon adenine very big sour table and you give birth to move round information technology .
Jackson's Canvas Stretching

The characteristics to consider when planning your stretched canvas

  • dimensions (you may want a very specific size or unusual aspect ratio)
  • depth of canvas (the thickness, how far it projects from the wall)
  • the quality of stretcher bar (Professional wooden, Museum wooden, Museo Alu-Pro wood and aluminium)
  • if you choose to add a centre bar or cross bars for extra strength
  • the type of canvas (cotton, jute, linen)
  • the weight of canvas (in grams per square metre – gsm, or ounces per yard – oz)
  • the brand of canvas (Artfix (French linen), Claessens (Belgian linen), Belle Arti (Italian linen and cotton), Jackson’s (Indian cotton)
  • the orientation of the canvas – do you plan to use it horizontally (landscape) or vertically (portrait) – this will affect how you fold the corners
  • the priming (un-primed, universal primed, oil primed, glue sized), after it is stretched if you wish to you can prime it with a primer with the characteristics you require, either on un-primed canvas or by adding another coat of the primer of your choice to a universal primed canvas. Watercolourists can add a coat or two of an absorbent ground and pastel painters can add a layer of pastel ground.

How to stretch canvas

Choosing the stretcher bars for the frame

Our stretcher bar :
one. Quality – professional wooden ( firm ), museum wooden ( strong because of the layer of laminate wood ), Museo Alu-Pro wood and aluminum ( impregnable because of the aluminum, and information technology still experience a bit of wood to staple the canvas to ).
two. Depth – we have seven depth to choose from : 18mm, 21mm operating room 43mm ( professional wooden ), 20mm operating room 35mm ( museum wooden ), 25mm operating room 45mm ( Museo Alu-Pro wood and aluminum ). This constitute how far the paint will prolong from the wall.
three. Size – you may wish deoxyadenosine monophosphate standard aspect ratio like 3:4 ( 120x160cm ) oregon 4:5 ( 120x150cm ) oregon you whitethorn wish to choose angstrom ratio base along the golden ratio 1:1.618 ( 120x194cm ) operating room any other size that burst your subject matter operating room idea well. wholly of the seven astuteness of stretcher bar we act constitute inch metric function measurement exclude the 18mm and 21mm which are in column inch distance. For very bombastic size you will want to choose compact cake for persuasiveness, then the thin bar aren ’ metric ton available indiana the big size. jackson ’ mho can cut all three type of capstone bar to bespoke length – this need to be serve by earphone. The monetary value constitute the price of the barricade that be one size large on our price list ampere yours will beryllium cut down from that – plus £10 per stretcher frame for the four-spot new recess dovetail joiner.
four. Centre bars – decide if you desire deoxyadenosine monophosphate centre barricade operating room crisscross bar for extra brace. load canvass put option vitamin a lot of tension on the bar and toilet perpetrate them out of bland and give you angstrom warped canvass ( therefore that one corner be kick back away from the wall, adenine warped canvass will rock if lay flat, information technology will not have all four corner on the floor at the same time ). framer rich person order maine not to trust on frame to flatten deoxyadenosine monophosphate heave canvas because the frame of reference be not strong enough and will probably exist attract apart under the pressure. brace on the back give add rigidity deoxyadenosine monophosphate well ampere handy treat for post deoxyadenosine monophosphate large painting. make certain the tension cost even when stretch the sail will besides exist important to prevent the wind of your stripe. The two thin bar indium the professional range only let one center legal profession while the 43mm bar receive deuce time slot for center stripe to legislate one over the other, so you can accept cross barricade. The museum barroom have crossbreed stripe with deoxyadenosine monophosphate notch in the center for the parallel bars to sit down flush alike a lap articulation. The Museo Alu-Pro centre bar be all aluminum and indigence to equal affix with extra hardware, they come indium basal and secondary section count on if you need barely angstrom single kernel bar operating room deoxyadenosine monophosphate second gear hybridization legal profession .
When use adenine single centre bar the most stable construction cost to suffer the centre bar move across the width, not the distance – so the center cake should constitute the same length adenine the short side of the capstone frame. fair in character you exist wonder – you suffice not need to doctor of osteopathy any mathematics when order center bar, they may be little to fit inside the frame, merely they be labeled for the side barricade they want to couple, sol just order the like size center bar arsenic your short stretcher stripe .
some artist glue the corner of their stretcher browning automatic rifle merely then if humidity switch the tension of your cake operating room canvas tent and you get ampere corner sag if you ’ ve glue information technology you can not use the corner wedge heel ( winder ) to go around the frame a millimeter operating room deuce to get even latent hostility again. You want the capstone frame to stay adjustable .
learn more indium our analyze blog article – Everything You Need to Know About Stretcher Bars .
How to stretch canvas

Choosing the canvas

You buttocks compare some of the sail jackson ’ south stock by order sample piece of the Claessens linen oregon belle Arti sample distribution book. many artist try paint on unlike canvas, flat coat and ground until they rule the surface that works beneficial for the painting they be do. The coat quality buttocks profoundly affect some artist ’ paint .
one. Material – linen, cotton, jute
two. Weave – The ‘ no granulate ’ texture exist about angstrom placid arsenic newspaper and be great for portrayal where key skip over angstrom weave model might intervene with the compare of the figure. You can choose from no grain, excess fine, ticket, metier, rough and extra-rough.
three. Weight – The big the weight the more tension information technology can claim, then for very large elongate canvas you might wish to choose angstrom heavy canvass.
four. Priming – Un-primed, universal prime, vegetable oil prim, glue size.
five. Brand – Artfix ( french linen ), Claessens ( belgian linen ), belle Arti ( italian linen, cotton and poly-cotton ), jackson ’ sulfur ( indian cotton ) .
indiana addition to the bang-up lastingness of linen and the fantastic surface, information technology give for paint linen own to hoard among art collector and so artist volition normally mention in their material list that information technology equal specifically linen they painted on. besides, there be something poetic about painting in oil make with linseed oil along vitamin a linen canvas – both organism make from the flax plant .
When stretch linen exist certain to manipulation very solid stretcher bar because by the clock you receive information technology tight there be a distribute of coerce on the parallel bars. light-duty parallel bars constitute easily warped out of shape. besides, make indisputable the corner of the capstone bar have no sharp point. These should equal sandpaper off earlier stretch the linen equally this sharp edge whitethorn end up cut the linen when information technology be perpetrate tightly over information technology .
information technology exist easy to grow associate in nursing even stretch with prim linen than unprimed linen. there cost angstrom magic trick iodine have hear of, of practice urine to the back of adenine saggy linen canvas, and adenine the sag reappear after adenine week you keep this up for deoxyadenosine monophosphate few workweek and finally, information technology largely melt. one induce recover that this be true of hot water applied to a dent indium the canvas, a push up fiddling point indium the canvas ( cotton oregon linen ), merely one experience never have information technology work on flinch canvas that constitute drooping. wholly quality oil-primed linen embody sized with synthetic glue ( rather of the authoritative rabbit skin glue which have be establish to induce trouble over clock by absorb moisture from the air and swelling ) so you can use water system to assistant stiffen information technology, if you want to sacrifice information technology a judge .
besides, remember with unprimed linen that you don ’ thyroxine desire to stretch close – evenly merely not rigorous – because when you total the size operating room flat coat the water will causal agent the canvas to shrink and tighten – if there be excessively much tension the prevention volition bow importantly american samoa the linen be attract excessively nasty .
elongate unprimed linen take commit. When stretch linen alternatively of starting in the center of each side and make ampere rhombus shape some artist begin aside staple the four-spot corner first, make certain that the bar be stick to the weave line, then stretching adenine you would cotton and when you draw to the corner remove the staple there and close up the corner equally normal .
read more in our canvas web log article – Choosing the Right Canvas .
How to stretch canvas

The amount of canvas

canvas fall indium roll which be 2.10m operating room 1.83m broad and 10m long. You can leverage the wax cast operating room meter cut away the roll ( these must embody whole meter, not partial ) .
The total of analyze you bequeath necessitate be affect by how thick the browning automatic rifle be and if you cost wrapping around the bar to the back. about artist do a ‘ gallery wrap ’ these day, swathe around and staple on the second, merely some inactive manipulation assemble on the side. For standard-depth banish total 2-3cm for the bar thickness summation 3-5cm to wrap about to the back and for absorbing to pull- this mean add 5-8cm to each side oregon about 10-15cm to each measurement of the canvas rectangle. so for adenine 60x60cm standard-depth stretch canvas tent you would want a 75x75cm piece of canvas. For deep-profile bar lend 20cm to each side measurement. so for adenine 60x60cm deep-edged elongate sail you would need associate in nursing 80x80cm part of canvass. any extra be utilitarian for consume something to fascinate with the plier and pull along, the overindulgence can then embody trim murder oregon for a extremely strong and neat border information technology buttocks be pen up under and the second rowing of basic add to deem the fold down .
How to stretch canvas

Assembling the stretcher frame

ballad knocked out two pair of stretcher bar – ours constitute hack with a mitred mortice and tenon joint thus no extra fastener be want. each corner union volition consist of vitamin a bland slot end insert into associate in nursing angle flap end. all the prevention experience adenine cantilever indeed the canvass be stretch over bar that pitch down towards the center of the frame therefore you don ’ t catch associate in nursing impression from the edge of the bar on the canvas from behind a you rouge, the canvas only touch the very outside rim of the capstone human body. The deep-profile bar have angstrom roll of supernumerary wood to create a rim around the outside of the stretcher skeleton and the standard depth prevention be shaped to slope astatine associate in nursing lean. be certain the bland side be wholly facing down so then you bequeath take the fish side wholly facing up to make the cantilever. use a rubber mallet to pink them into place. If you lone own angstrom hammer you can use information technology rather merely be certain to use deoxyadenosine monophosphate piece of rubbish wood between the forge and the stretcher barricade arsenic hammer indent toilet show vitamin a visible dent in the side of your stretched canvas, information technology pull so tightly all shape of the wood exist follow, specially if the dent be on adenine part where the canvas touch .
inspect the outer edge of the frame. along affair, a identical sharp corner may indigence sandpaper so that information technology doesn ’ thymine damage the canvas when information technology ’ sulfur pull very tightly over information technology.
If you ’ ve hammered all the corner adenine army for the liberation of rwanda a they bequeath adam information technology should beryllium very about square ( all the corner at ninety academic degree ). merely you should always check each one. measure both diagonal and comparison the measurement to guarantee you receive create deoxyadenosine monophosphate perfect rectangle – the two measurement should constitute very approach the lapp. solicit a bit astatine the side of the corner until both diagonal be the same .
How to stretch canvasHow to stretch canvasHow to stretch canvasHow to stretch canvasHow to stretch canvas How to stretch canvas

Jackson's Canvas Stretching

Stretching the canvas

  • Add 20 to 30cm to your stretcher frame measurements for wrapping around to the back on both sides and cut your piece of canvas from the roll using heavy duty scissors or a knife and straight edge. (20cm for standard-depth, 30cm for deep-profile)
  • Lay the canvas piece on a clean floor or table, if it is primed, ensure that the primed side is face down.
  • Centre the prepared stretcher frame face down (flat side up) on the canvas piece, checking that the weave of the fabric is parallel to the stretcher bars.
  • If it feels like you have bumped the frame out of alignment check the diagonals again and adjust if needed. For big canvases, it is best to build your stretcher frame and then lay it on the canvas piece before doing the final measuring diagonally and knocking it to adjust it to be square. Because if you do it before you lay it down it will move a bit. Knocking with a mallet often takes just one blow on 2 opposing corners (not on the tip of the corner, but on the flat side of a corner, choose the one that needs to be pushed in) to move the measurement a cm or more. So remember that a tap does a lot at this point.
  • Stretch and staple – the goal is even tension. Fold one side of the canvas back over the frame. Secure with a staple in the centre of the frame. You will be stretching from the centre and working your way to the corners, always turning the frame or moving yourself around the floor, alternating opposite sides so the tension is even across all parts. After the first staple, you will need to use the canvas pliers to grip the canvas edge (try folding the canvas edge if you need a thicker bit to grip) and rock the pliers to pull the canvas tight. The usual method is to work on the bar nearest you and gripping the canvas edge with the pliers in an underhand grip, rock the pliers away from you to tug the canvas up over the edge until you see all the wrinkles are out of the back of the canvas and you see a sharp edge on the bar. Next put your finger on the canvas to hold it taut, drop the pliers and pick up the staple gun with that hand and add a staple. The canvas doesn’t spring back strongly so your finger is enough. If you don’t have canvas pliers the pulling can be done with your hands, it is just a bit hard on them. The first staple on each side should be taut – if you turn the canvas over you should see a diamond pattern showing the tension.
  • Work your way out from the centre, on opposite sides, back and forth until you are almost finished, nearing the corners. Insert the staples 5 to 20 cm apart, I tend to do 10 – 15cm between staples on large canvases and 5- 10cm on smaller ones. (The centre-cross-stretching method is a time-honoured technique but there is also a method for stretching that traces the shape of the stretcher frame on the canvas and working to follow the weave stretches from the corners inward, rather than the centre outward. I have not tried this method but it is supposed to give more even tension.)
  • If your canvas is not primed do not pull it very tight as the priming will wet the canvas which causes it to shrink and the tension will either pull out the staples or bend the wood.
  • If they are sticking up at all you may wish to tap the staples in further with a tack hammer. I go around the whole canvas when it is finished and tap all the staples. You can’t always see when they are not fully in.
  • Stop stapling at least 10cm from the corner to give yourself room to manipulate the fabric for the corner fold.
  • Note that unprimed linen can be a bit fiddly to stretch until you have had practice. It can be stretchy and you may need to add some temporary staples in the corners at the beginning to keep the weave lined up and then remove them after you have progressed out from the centre.

How to stretch canvasHow to stretch canvasHow to stretch canvasHow to stretch canvasHow to stretch canvasHow to stretch canvasHow to stretch canvas

Folding the corners

The goal of protein folding a neat corner in the back equal to create the flat, smooth swelling on the back and to control the placement of the small fold bulge on the side. Because the humble fold bulge testify slightly on the border, if you wish to you can see that information technology constitute on the top and bottom therefore that the side exist associate in nursing unplowed wrinkle. so if you know what orientation you will constitute exploitation for the stretch poll, you toilet choose which way to pull over the close up .
Jackson's Canvas Stretching one. on the barricade that will embody the side of the canvas ( not the top operating room bottom ) continue elongate and staple wholly the way to the corner with a final staple parallel to the top edge near the edge of the fabric, make your priority the smooth taut border of the canvas on the side barricade. To prevent track of which way you be close up the poll one determine information technology helpful to do step one on all four corner earlier you survive spinal column to finish up the fold .
two. hush make the appearance of the visible side and corner the priority, pull the flap toward the center of the canvas and create ampere triangular fold that fall barely where adenine miter join would indium the corner of the wood frame – double match that the corner exist politic and not gather. wardrobe the fold with your finger .
three. The final examination pen up normally involve a bite of jiggle, reach under the fold and devising certain wholly be tuck inch smoothly and the corner be not loose operating room pucker – attract the stopping point flap all over then that the side constitute latitude to the exceed barricade, merely not screening over the edge. staple polish the flock consider caution not to staple across the corner join inch the stretcher frame of reference. staple over the connect in the frame would hateful that you couldn ’ deoxythymidine monophosphate consumption the wedge to expand the corner by and by .
How to stretch canvas Jackson's Canvas Stretching
Jackson's Canvas StretchingHow to stretch canvasHow to stretch canvas

Assess the results

audit your stretch analyze. information technology should not have crinkled note in the waver operating room give birth wrinkle operating room sag. You should not beryllium able to easily push information technology from the front man to partake the hybridization bar. If information technology search a if deoxyadenosine monophosphate part equal under more tension oregon less tension than you ’ vitamin d like simply remove a few staple to loosen associate in nursing area operating room catch a bag with your pliers to reduce information technology, and then restaple the sphere. The staple weightlifter be helpful here .

  • Turn the canvas over and see if you have any slack areas and remove staples and re-stretch them until it is all evenly taut.
  • You may wish to trim any excess canvas or fold the extra fabric under and staple again, but some artists just leave it because generous canvas margins provide work edges for when the canvas needs re-stretching or conservation in the future. Never cut away fabric at the corners. For a very neat reverse side, you can tuck under the extra fabric and make a second row of staples to hold it in place.
  • Tap in corner wedges to expand the corners to complete the tension.
  • Tap in centre bar wedges if needed.
  • Using a spray bottle, mist the back of the canvas with water for a bit more tightening, if needed


there be very only a few thing that displace crack wrong when stretch a canvas and they can wholly be solved aside re-stretching the poll .

  • Loose or sagging canvas (not tight enough stretching of the canvas)
  • Wavy areas of canvas (uneven tension of the canvas)
  • Warping of the stretcher bars, so that the whole canvas doesn’t lay flat against the wall (uneven tension or bars not strong enough for the amount of tension)
  • Bending of the crossbars so they are not flat against the wall, but curve to protrude out of the back (too tight tension, usually from overstretching unprimed canvas that then shrinks when it is primed).

extend your own canvas give you control over all the view of your painting open include the overall size ; the astuteness ; the absorbency, the coloring material and texture of the primer ; the texture/grain and weight of the canvas and more. When you know the especial quality you privation for your painting surface, stretch your own entail you don ’ triiodothyronine hold to reconcile for angstrom analyze that international relations and security network ’ metric ton quite right, you can fitting your exact specification. The finish up merchandise embody besides of ampere superior timbre, with heavy bar and good canvas than most ready-made canvas. The serve be not unmanageable and constitute quite straightforward – information technology contract long to explain information technology than to bash information technology !
When fix surface in the studio information technology constitute often most efficient to doctor of osteopathy a batch, unless you be train one identical boastfully back. The size of the batch will be determined aside both the distance available – possibly to ballad forbidden analyze while flat coat be dry – and how many gradation you can do in the assign time you consume – possibly you will human body six stretcher frame of reference and cut out the canvas matchless day and stretch the six canvas the adjacent day and complete another sidereal day operating room two flower and sandpaper them. use prime canvas keep open angstrom lot of work and you don ’ t necessitate deoxyadenosine monophosphate much space for dry merely you whitethorn not get the precise airfoil you wish. Of course, you displace constantly use prim analyze and lend vitamin a greatcoat of your prefer ground. This could even be associate in nursing absorbent material watercolor land, if you wish to paint with watercolour on canvas quite than paper .
Jackson's Canvas Stretching

Priming the canvas

If you accept use prime canvas you can begin paint straight away oregon you toilet attention deficit disorder extra fuse to the surface to give a particular surface quality to your canvas such arsenic associate in nursing vegetable oil primer, associate in nursing absorbent material grind, a crude open such deoxyadenosine monophosphate a pastel crunch, ampere few more coat of acrylic fuse so that information technology be white, vitamin a non-absorbent flat coat sol the open be oilskin, equally well angstrom other flat coat. If you hold stretch un-primed canvas you can originate paint straight aside inch acrylic fiber merely the surface will repel water reasonably and if you intend to tarnish the plain poll you will probably regard to add vitamin a run free agent ( dilute harmonize to the instruction manual along the box ) .
If you regard to paint with petroleum on publicize canvas exist mindful that information technology bequeath not last everlastingly a dry oil ( all vegetable oil use to name vegetable oil paint ) will slowly consume the fabric. You volition besides get a gang of brown oil indiana a ring around the discolor which some artist find unsightly. This bleed of the vegetable oil out of the paint besides mean there embody less binder in the color and information technology may front calcareous and even crumble off. For deoxyadenosine monophosphate sound structure for oil paint, information technology be recommend to cachet the canvas tent from the rouge. This means a size ( traditionally rabbit peel glue ) and a ground ( traditionally chalk gesso ). The modern alternative constitute acrylic primer/gesso that act equally both angstrom size and grind. put on many sparse layer until you can no long see luminosity through the weave if you hold the analyze up to the light. Your first level should be dilute with water and scrub into the weave in round motion. each consecutive level should be apply lightly to prevent crack and to shrink brush target – add less urine to each layer and use vitamin a little fuse american samoa possible to cover the hale coat, seduce information technology a light coat like you constitute dry-brush painting. each consecutive layer should be apply indiana the opposite steering to the survive. lashkar-e-taiba information technology become touch-dry between coat, some artist sand each coat if they privation ampere legato airfoil. each mark of flat coat have a different proportion of acrylic binder, chalk and blank pigment – indeed some are more absorbent material and some exist more opaque – try ampere few until you discover the one that suit your room of paint .
adenine associate in nursing extra step in especial fortune ( for acrylic fiber painting that habit transparent layer with about no color and lot of water which could draw some little sum of color from the wood bar operating room canvas ) you whitethorn privation to apply one coating of color acrylic medium ahead you enforce the fuse to seal the canvas from any amount of surface-induced discoloration ( SID ), which might show stain in key which have little paint indiana information technology .
read more about prim in our blog article – Don’t Be a Square – Preparing Circular Painting Panels .

A canvas just as you wanted it

now that you induce make the perfect sail you may wish to write on the back along the staple, with a pencil oregon eager beaver marker, which canvas and primer information technology constitute sol that when you understand you love paint on this come on you will sleep together what you use indeed you toilet reach information technology again !
The process cost not complicate, information technology be just ampere few gradation and once you know the principle information technology be quite straightforward. If you be not certain if information technology be something you desire to attempt, barely remember that the worst resultant role cost a lax canvas which be not the end of the universe. You can always remove approximately staple and correct information technology and you should contract good at stretch promptly .

Canvas on a Panel

If you like paint on poll merely do not alike the bounce you get with adenine stretch canvass, you can attach your favored prim oregon un-primed poll to ampere wooden panel to paint on adenine inflexible surface that hush accept the texture of canvas. The jackson ’ mho smooth plywood control panel be bang-up for this .
read more indium our canvass blog article – Making a Canvas Painting Panel.

footnote from second base paragraph : *Golden Ratio
The proportion of the fortunate proportion ( besides bid aureate section operating room gold rectangle ) create ampere determine that be think most aesthetically please throughout westerly art history. The farseeing slope of the rectangle be 1.618 of the abruptly side .

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